Essential Things You Need to Know About Raising Guinea Fowl

       It goes without question that Guinea fowl are one of the most unusual, quirky and wacky birds around and their babies are no different. Guinea fowl babies, also known as keets, are rambunctious, excitable and- if we’re being honest- some of the doughiest creatures around. Caring for young Guinea fowl keets is one of the most rewarding experiences you can have with an animal. So long as you have a sense of humour, a little patience and are well informed, raising Guinea fowl keets will be a breeze.

 What to expect from Guinea fowl keets

Guinea fowl keets are cute, chirpy, curious and clumsy things that you’ll definitely need to keep an eye on, but the good news is they are so much fun to watch. They scurry about the brooder dazed, confused and excited seemingly without any sense of what they are or where they’re going.  This leaves them unfortunately prone to accident, such as dislocated legs, which often results in death if it occurs at an early age.

What do I need to know about brooders?

A brooder is essentially a safe, temperature controlled space- normally an extra-large plastic container- that your Guinea fowl keets will be able to spend the first two to six weeks of their life. Some people however renovate their chicken tractors, like the Taj Mahal, into temporary brooders, by positioning the tractor on top of a tarp indoors and inserting heat lamps inside the tractor.

Coat the floor of your brooder with newspaper or non-toxic hemp bedding. Avoid other beddings, such as sawdust, otherwise you’re Guinea fowl keets will mistake it for feed and end up with some very upset tummies.

The brooder needs to be kept at approximate 35 degrees Celsius, otherwise your Guinea fowl keets might get a bit cold. A carefully positioned heat lamp with a thermometer strategically placed at the bottom of the brooder is the simplest way to ensure your keets stay warm during this early period of their life. If you’re Guinea fowl keets are huddled together with their eyes closed or squinted, this is a sure sign that they are feeling cold and you will need to warm the brooder up.

One of the fabulous things about Guinea fowl keets is the fact that their droppings are an easy to clean dry and powdery substance. The easiest way to clean the brooder is to relocate the baby keets to a safe place, remove the bedding, wipe down the interior of the brooder with a natural cleaner and reline the inside with fresh bedding. Extra points if you use the droppings as fertiliser for your compost.

Guinea fowl keets grow especially quickly over the first two weeks and it might be tempting to let them out of the brooder sooner than it is recommended. Generally speaking Guinea fowl keets should remain inside the brooder for the first six weeks of their lives, but feel free to give them excursions to your living room, bathroom or backyard. So long as you monitor the keets as they begin to explore the world, they should remain safe from any of the dangers ahead of them.


What do the baby Guinea fowl keets eat and drink?

Adult Guinea fowl are one of the most self-reliant poultry birds around. They are able to graze in your garden all day, eating entire armies of bugs and insect, whilst scavenging all other kinds of treats and goodies. As most Guinea fowl keets won’t be safe to graze in the wild it’s important that you give them plenty of feed while they’re inside the brooder. Simply scatter the feed atop of the newspaper and they will delightedly peck and feed for hours.

Of course Guinea fowl keets need to drink water. The important thing to note about this is the fact that you will need to secure a drown-proof waterer, otherwise you might wake up one morning to find a nasty surprise inside your brooder.

What to expect if something bad happens to my Guinea fowl keets?

One of the sadder realities about Guinea fowl keets is that if they’re exposed to some kind of trauma during the first few weeks, the more anti-social and fiercely independent they will become. For example, if the other keets tease, bully or attack one particular baby Guinea fowl, it is likely that they will become less socialised as an adult. An anti-social Guinea fowl will be more inclined to chase, tease or act aggressively towards other animals and even humans.

How are Guinea fowl keets raised in the wild?

Guinea fowl have many charms but they are definitely not known for being good parents. Guinea fowl mothers tend to isolate their nest in the wild and savagely protect it from other birds, animals and even humans. Whilst caring for the eggs Guinea fowl are dedicated and caring parents committed to the cause of their children. However, once the Guinea fowl keets have hatched the mothers tend to lose interest, wander off and quite generally neglect their young baby keets. The unfortunate truth is that often in the wild a mother might hatch upward of twenty keets however perhaps as few as five will make it to adulthood. Some owners take young Guinea fowl keets under their wings when they are a few days old, once the mother has abandoned them. However be cautious before swoop in and take the baby keets, as the mother may get offended and try to keep them for herself.

Where can I get Guinea fowl keets from?

Most Guinea fowl breeders will also sell the keets, from as little as one day old. It’s in your best interest to get as young a Guinea fowl keet as possible, as they have trouble adjusting the new environment as they get older, which you can read about here. It’s probably best to call the breeder and arrange a suitable time to come and collect the keets, as they are likely to know when the next batch of Guinea will hatch. Sites like Chicken Sales can put you in contact with breeders of Guinea fowl or chickens in your area.

Raising Guinea fowl keets is a delightful, grin-inducing experience that will help you appreciate the little things in life. So long as you are understand the basics and are prepared for the touch of silliness the Guinea fowl will bring to your life, it’s bound to be a rewarding experience.

Once your Guinea fowl have come of age it’s important that they have a safe and sturdy coop to rest in at the end of a fun day eating bugs, like the Taj Mahal, Penthouse and Mansion. Be sure you find out more about how you can keep Guinea fowl with chickens, especially if you’re planning on getting a big and comfortable coop.

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  •         Rabbit for pet.
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Goat farming business plan for beginners

  All business requires a suitable business plan for starting it. As goat farming is a  profitable business idea, so it is very necessary to make a proper goat farming business plan before starting this business.
Generally goat farming project requires less capital and investment than raising any other livestock. Therefore, you can start goat farming business with a very small investment and get more profits than you expected.
  Goat Farming Business Plan For Beginners
High profit within a very short time, little investment, huge global demand are the main reasons of spreading this business rapidly throughout the world. If you are new in this market then first of all you should meet with some successful goat producers and visit some farms. As a result of visiting some farms and producers you will get some clear idea about the pros and corns of this business. This will help you running your business perfectly. However, for making a suitable goat farming business plan read the following criteria very carefully.
   Goat Products
The first thing is to make a decision of what you really want to produce and sell from your goat farming business. Goats are multi-purpose animals. You can produce the products like milk, meat, fiber, manure and skin form goats. Do a market survey near you to understand which goat products have a high demand in the market. Try to produce those products which you can sell easily in your local area and in the market. Otherwise you will not gain as expected.
For an example, you have established a dairy goat farming business. And your goats are producing milk highly. But there are a little or no goat milk consumer in your local market. Then what will you do with your product? This is the question you should ask yourself. So, always keep in mind this factor and try to produce those products which you can sell easily in your local market. If you have a good facility of marketing your products internationally then you can produce any product from your farm. However, make a good decision of what you are going to produce form your goat farming business.

  Meat: Nowadays goat meat has a great demand internationally. And this rate is increasing rapidly day by day. A report shows that about 70% of total consumed meat globally comes form the goat. If you have sufficient facility of selling goat meat in your local market then you can start raising some highly meat productive goat breeds such as Boer, Beetal, Matou, Black Bengal etc. are highly meat productive goat breeds.

 Milk: Goat milk is enriched with many necessary nutrition elements and it is easily digestible. As a result it has huge demand in local and international market. Goat milk is also very suitable for making all types of dairy products. If you can sell goat milk in your nearest market easily then you have to choose some highly milk productive goat breeds. Some highly milk producing goat breeds are Saanen, Jamunapari , Toggenburg,
Anglo Nubian , Alpine etc.

 Fiber: Cashmere and Angora goat are very suitable if you want to produce fiber form your farm. Both are highly fiber productive.

Skin: All goat breeds produce skin. But few of them produce high quality skin. For business purpose Black Bengal goat produces high quality skin. And their skin has a high demand and value in the international market. Before start raising goats for skin be sure that there is a market available for selling your product.

Manure: Some crop farmer uses goat manner in their field. It is a very high quality organic fertilizer. You can earn some extra money by selling the manure of goat.
              Goat Housing
Commercial goat farming needs suitable house for profitable production. Serious goat producers make separate house for their goats. You should make such a house which can provide all types of facilities for your goats. Good house keeps the goat healthy and free from diseases. This directly increases the production. So, before starting consider how comfortable house can you make for your goats. Investment in housing is fixed. And you can use one house for several years.
          Feeding Goats
Goats are ruminants. They eat almost all types of crop, corn and leaves. It would be better if you have a grazing place where your goats can roam freely. In this system your goat will get food from natural sources and it also reduce your food cost. In case of raising goats by providing them home made supplementary feed be sure that all feed elements are easily available in your local market. Also ensure sufficient supply of clean and fresh water.
goat, goat farming, goat farming business plan,
        Health & Care
Always try to raise your goats in a hygienic environment . Sometimes your goats may suffer by various diseases. Make sure that a veterinarian doctor is available near your farm. If possible stock some necessary vaccines and medicines in your farm. And always vaccinate your goats timely.
       Suggestions and Question for you 
There are many factors related to this business. Before starting goat farming business, ask some questions to yourself.
Do you love goats? Loving the animals that you are raising is very important for success-fullness in any business.
Do you have any experience in this business? If not, contact with your nearest animal husbandry training centers or visit some farms.
Do you have enough capital for setting up your farm? You can also apply for bank loan.
Do you have enough facilities for goat farming? For example clean and fresh water source, cultivation of green feeds like plants or grasses, proper marketing, medication etc.
What is the market condition of your location? Try to understand the market demand and price of your products.
Do you have enough time & interest? This is very important for beginners.
Can you personally take care of your goats? Don’t depend on labors. Try to take care of your goats personally along with your labors. Learn more about their health and diseases management. If possible visit some farms practically for several days and try to learn everything related to this business.
Before starting goat farming business plan consider your budget and some other factor related to this business. How much capital do you have? How many facility can you provide to your goats with this capital? Which product do you want to produce form your farm? What are the natural facilities available there for goat farming? Is there any market for selling your products in proper price? Is there any grazing place near your farm? Can you provide provide proper treatment and medicines? If all the answers become positive then you should start goat farming business immediately. Wish your happy and profitable goat farming business.

Guides On How To Build A Rabbit Hutch

When planning to build a rabbit hutch, different things are put into consideration. Those things includes;             

  •        Size of the hutch 
  •          Location 
  •          Materials to use (Wood, Plastic, wire mesh)
  •          Flooring e.t.c

Cage size is a very important factor to consider. Note that the minimum area a rabbit should be confined in is 12 square feet, but also they need additional space for exercise. I urge you to setup cage that will give them space to play and exercise freely.
  When planning and designing the cage, it's also advisable to think about anything to add in the cage - for instance, "a litter tray" so as to make sure they fit in your plans.
The size of the cage depends on the location of your cage. There is no point building the perfect cage and then finding it won't fit through a door way or is blocking a plug socket you need access to.
You may like to take advantage of a cupboard, space under the stairs, or alcove to build your that rabbit house. This is a good way to create a rabbit space without occupying too much space.
Note: Choose a location where your rabbit won't disturb your sleep if they choose to play at at night.
Read also: How to check or palpate Rabbit for pregnancy
Your choice of materials to use in making your cage should be chew proof and non toxic. There are lots of options depending on how you want your cage to look and the needs of your rabbit.
Most untreated wood is fine to use for example pine, - plywood is commonly used to build outdoor rabbit housing. MDF is toxic if the dust is inhaled, Different cuts of wood can be used for different purposes for example trim is good for covering edges that might get chewed and skirting board can make a nice tray.
Corrugated plastic sheets (Correx) can be an easy to use building material - though they aren't very chew proof.
Wire Mesh
 I'd suggest using weld mesh if your cage will include a mesh section. Plastic or powder coated mesh can look better than bare wire. If you can buy coated mesh in the size/colour you'd like then you can coat your own using Plastikote Fast Dry Enamel, which is non toxic when dry and available in a range of colours.
Fitting the mesh on the inside of the frame generally gives a neater finish and also helps prevent your rabbit chewing the frame by limiting access.
Lino flooring is a nice option as it's cheap and can be cut to any size for easy to installation.
Fit it using double sided tape or flooring adhesive. The edges can then be finished off with bathroom sealant to give a neat finish, protect them from chewing and prevent any liquid running underneath. Alternatively you'll find a range of trims, either flat to cover joins or corner shaped to hide edges - this is a good option if you had trouble cutting the flooring edges neatly as they get hidden under the trim!
Tiles are also an option, though they take a little more skill to fit and can be slippy if too smooth. Keep in mind rabbits have fluff on the bottom of their feet, not pads, so can have trouble with slippery surfaces.
If you find your floor choice doesn't have enough grip, you can add a rug, woven mat or rubber stable matting over the floor afterwards.
If you have the height available, adding a shelf to the cage can be a good way to add extra floor space and rabbits like to have a raised platform to rest/lookout from. A shelf can be supported with shelf brackets (like you'd use for a bookshelf) or if the walls are mesh, by slotting a couple of lengths of wood all the way through to span the gap and fixing a board on top. Notch the wood supports so they sit over the mesh to stop them moving.
If the shelf is quite low e.g. less than one foot (30cm) your rabbit maybe able to easily jump up and down without any help. For higher shelves, or less agile rabbits, you can add a ramp - easy to make from a flat piece of board with pieces of trim to create grip. Another alternative is a series of small shelves leading up to make steps. These take up less room than a ramp.

when designing a rabbit cage, cleaning routine should be considered especially when planning for flooring. Always make sure that the doorways are wide enough for easy removal and cleaning of litter tray, ramps and boxes. Making a ramp removable can make sweeping around it a lot easier.
Avoid any small spaces between mesh and frame that can fill with hay and be difficult to clean.
You might also want to consider keeping the area around the cage clean - hay and litter has a tendency to spread well, so a substrate board/tray around the base of the cage will help keep mess contained if your rabbit start digging and throwing things around.

Health Benefit of Quail Egg

                     QUAIL EGGS
Quail eggs are eggs obtained from the wild quail bird. It is midsized in shape. Quails are mainly found in North Africa, Europe, Southern United States, and some parts of Asia.Quails move quickly and can fly if the needed. Quail eggs are smaller compared to chicken and duck eggs, the egg shells have dots. The nutritional value of quail eggs includes; vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, phytonutrients, etc
Let’s talk about the amazing and great benefit of quail egg here
   1. Good For Eyes
Eating quail eggs on a regular basis has a great benefit especially at improving eyesight and protecting eyes from damage.
This benefit of quail eggs is mainly because of the presence of antioxidants like “Vitamin A” in them. Vitamin A is a vital nutrient for our eyes and plays an important role in keeping them healthy.
[Recommended]: Advantage of Quail Farming
    2. Prevents Cough And Eases Asthma:
Quail eggs treat many conditions and are
effective in treating cough and asthma. Many ancient civilizations have used quail egg yolk to treat psoriasis and eczema. The beneficial qualities of quail eggs have seen them feature as a commercial product, with the latest being quail egg extract capsules .
   3. Reduces Risk Of Terminal Illnesses:
 Anybody that has a low potassium count, runs the risk of contracting conditions like high blood pressure, arthritis, heart disease, stroke, cancer and digestive disorders among others. So, eat quail eggs to keep those potassium levels up. If quail eggs don’t sound too appetizing, consider eating quail egg extract capsules.
    4. Promotes Blood Formation:
Quail eggs are iron-rich. As u know Iron is an essential mineral, so it does not only boosts immunity, it also helps oxygenate your organs, tissues and other essential parts of the body. Iron also stimulates RBC formation, which boosts your blood health. Quail eggs contain potassium, which is beneficial for the blood.
     5. Boosts Immunity:
Quail eggs also help keep stomach disorders at bay. Quail eggs improve your body’s immune system. They also boost memory and increase brain activity. With their high iron content, quail eggs also help increase hemoglobin levels in your body. Quail eggs also rid your body of toxic compounds and metals that build up in the body.
[ Read: Hemoglobin Rich Foods ]
    6. Good For Growth
Consuming quail eggs on a regular and moderate basis have been found to be very beneficial for the overall development of our body.
This benefit of quail eggs is mainly because of the abundance of protein in them.
Protein is a vital compound required for the growth and development of our body.
Protein also plays a great role in the growth and the repair of the cells, worn out tissues, bones, muscles, blood vessels etc.
   7. Bone development
Quail egg is good for the development of bones. When we talk about bone,the first thing that comes to our mind is “Calcium”. Eating quail eggs on a regular basis have been found by researchers to be very beneficial for the development of bones, and for making them stronger, because of the presence of amino acid like “Lysine” in them.
 It plays an important and special role in the development of child bone.
In addition to this, other nutrients like iron, zinc, potassium etc. also plays a significant role in the development of our bones. Quail eggs also reduces the risk of osteoporosis by making our bones stronger, which is a condition caused by the weakening of bones.
   8. Improves Hair Quality:
Quail eggs are good for hair growth. Antioxidants present in the quail eggs protects hair and scalp from the oxidative damage that is caused by the free radicals and thereby reduces risk of premature graying of hair.The nutrients present in quail eggs straighten the hair, while making it shinier. Include quail eggs in your diet if you a strong and shiny hair. The nutrients in it also relaxes blood vessels of the scalp, improves blood circulation and thus promotes hair growth.
   9. Anti-Inflammatory:
Quail eggs are potent anti-inflammatory agents, which makes them an ideal food for anybody suffering from joint pains, chronic cough, and bronchitis. The anti-allergic tendency of quail eggs also boosts its anti-inflammatory characteristics.
   10. Good For People Allergic To Chicken Eggs:
 Quail eggs can be the perfect replacement for those that are allergic to Chicken eggs. Chicken egg can cause some reactions to those allergic to it, like excessive scratching, vomiting, stomach pain, and nausea. Quail eggs don’t cause allergies and have lesser allergens than chicken eggs. This anti-allergic benefit of quail eggs is due to the presence of ovomucoid protein in them.


How to start small scale quail farming

Quail breeding has been considered to be one of the most lucrative when it comes to birds because of many factors which includes that;

 1. Quail birds are small in size when compared to other poultry birds and they require low floor space for firming.
2. Raising quails for commercial purpose is fun and easy and also needs low maintenance. It is not at all labor-intensive.
3. They are hardy birds and diseases are not frequent in quails.
4. Quail farming demands low start-up investment but produce massive income.
5. Feed consumption of quails is also low in comparison with chickens.
6. They will become ready to sell preferably at 5 weeks of age.
7. They will get early sexual maturity and within 7 weeks of age they start lying eggs. A quail continues to lay one egg per day.
8. Quail eggs and meat both have high nutritional values and are delicious too. Meat has low-fat content thus suited to high blood pressure patients.
9. They generally produce approx 300 eggs in the first year of age which is considered as very high growth rate of laying eggs.

   Basically quails are raised commercially for the two reasons which is selling quail eggs and meat. Quail farming has the potential to generate huge profit within a short period. In order to increase income and being successful in quail farming business, it is necessary to begin with some basic training in the filed like their characteristics and how to properly breed them. This will also help you feed and care for these birds better, which will result in a higher quality end product.
Here you need to do a lot of  to know more about quail, survey the market, know the customer and how good the business is in your location. This step is the most essential part, even if you are planning to start out small. It will help you determine all of the vital elements of the business and will assist with implementing the different steps in order to operate the business. Some vital elements should be included in your business plan, such as;
The initial capital
Breed of quails to specialize in
What type of feed you will be using e.t.c

NOTE: Quails are birds like others and have feathers, so they can fly and due to the reason can't left to roam free in the environment as much as they can be domesticated.

Therefore it is important that they are confined to a space. You can choose either deep litter system or cage system. This could be in your own backyard if you plan is to start-out at small scale. Be sure the location you choose have an adequate amount of space to accommodate the birds. Then if you are planning on a medium or larger-scale farming business, you will have to consider leasing premises with an adequate amount of space. Actually cage system is the most appropriate for keeping quails as they are easy to manage and there is a small chance of breaking out diseases.

As i said earlier quails are raised for two main purpose;
        1. Meat
        2. Egg
  Before you purchase livestock, you will need to determine what breed of quails you will be specializing in. Some beginners choose to focus on a specific breed, while others prefer multiple breeds. If your main focus will be on the eggs i will advised to opt for the Tuxedo, English white, British or Manchurian golden breeds of quail, For businesses that will focus more on the meat of quails, it is recommended to opt for a breed such as the white breasted Indian or bob white American.
After deciding which breed you will be focusing on (or multiple breeds you will be focusing on), you should gather information about suppliers. You should buy a couple of quails to start out – this will be the initial livestock and will increase in number as they start breeding.
Quails are known to feed on chicken feeds amongst other things like grains, seeds, etc You will also need to buy the feed material that are made of small particles of broken wheat, kipper fish, rice bran, sesame cake, broken oyster shell etc. Feed management is very important for quail farming; a well-balanced wholesome feed guarantees healthy and highly productive quail birds resulting in high ROI. The cost of feeding quails is usually low due to the fact that they do not consume as much food as several other poultry birds. These birds can be fed with the same feed used for turkeys and chicken, but in lower amounts. An adult quail of 6 months old daily consumes 30-35 grams of food.
The final step is to market and promote your quail farming business. This is an important step and will help you gain your first few clients. You will be able to promote both eggs and meat to customers, but can also choose to target just one of these. The breed of quail you are specializing in will also affect whether you specialize in eggs or meat.
Promoting your business can be done in several ways. You can start a website for your business, but should only consider this when your business is starting to grow. During the first few months, you should focus on promoting in your local area. This will provide you with more funds that can be used to expand your business. Start by printing out business cards and keeping them with you at all times. This is very convenient when you find someone who is interested in your business. You can also publish an advertisement in your local newspaper. Posters and flyers can also provide an effective method of marketing your business.


Quail Farming and it's Advantage

   Quail is a small ground-nesting game bird in the pheasant family Phasianidae .
Coturnix is the Latin for this species.

  Quail rearing is becoming very popular day by day because there are many advantages of quail farming. Quail farming can be an affordable way to generate some extra income. Quail farming is a low cost, very easy and high profit business. You can even start raising quails in your backyard, garden or even on rooftop. Quail products (eggs and meat) have high demand in the market. So there are nothing to worry about marketing the products. However, here we are describing more about the top advantages of quail farming.

Advantages of Quail Farming

       Easy to Raise
Quails are very smal sized birds and they are very easy to raise. They need less care and management, and thus very easy to care for them.
Self-sustaining Business
Quail farming is a self-sustainable business opportunity, and this is the most attractive part of raising quails. Quails generally reach maturity within their 6 weeks of age. And they start laying eggs from their 6 weeks of age. So you can start selling a portion of the eggs and get a quick return on your initial investment.
You can consider keeping some fertile eggs for hatching. And you can start doubling or tripling your production figures if you raise the birds in the right environment.
advantages of quail farming, quail farming
     Low Maintenance
Quails generally don’t require high maintenance. They are smaller sized birds and they don’t need too much space for moving around. Although regular maintenance is they key to success in quail farming business.
 Require Less Food
Quails generally require very less amount of food as compared to other domestic poultry birds. And feeding quails won’t add massive costs to your
quail farming business planning . Quails will be good and healthy and can thrive on a special mixture of corn, wheat etc. You can also feed your birds with commercial chicken feed. Quails also love other grains, leaves and insects. Quails can also be feed on weeds from the garden.
Quails Are Disease Resistant Bird
Quails are very hardy birds. And unlike many other poultry birds or farm animals, they don’t get sick easily and they hardly require special care. They are also disease resistant birds. Although ensure you have a reliable veterinary specialist in your contact list.
Quail Products Are Healthy and Delicious
Both quail eggs and meat are of very high quality, nutritious and delicious also. And both meat and eggs are gaining popularity quickly because they provide important minerals and vitamins.
    High Demand
Quail products have very high demand in the market. Quail eggs and meat are very low in fat and high in protein. And both are gaining popularity fast. It is believed that, quail products can help with the treatment of diseases like liver disease, diabetes, hypertension, tuberculosis etc. Price of both meat and eggs is also good.

Californian Rabbit Characteristics & Full Breed Information

  Californian rabbit is a beautiful domestic breed. It is also known as California White . George West in Southern California developed this breed in the early 1920s. He developed the Californian rabbit by crossing Himalayan breeds and the Standard
Chinchilla rabbit breed, and then crossed the offspring with the New Zealand Whites. His purpose was to develop a good pet/show rabbit breed. But the Californian rabbit are most widely raised for their fur value and meat production. The breed was not popular after their development, and took at least 15 years to become popular. Today it is widely raised rabbit breed in the United States. Californian rabbit is a recognized breed by the American Rabbit Breeders Association. Review characteristics, uses and full breed profile below.
Californian Rabbit Characteristics
The Californian rabbit is large in size with well rounded compact body. The color variety is usually white with spots and normally they don’t have any other color. Californians are very similar to the Himalayan in coloration with a white body and colored points. They have big ears, which are held erect. And have very dark brown markings (almost black) on their tail, nose, feet and ears. Their neck is very short, and they have pink eyes. They are very muscular, full in the shoulders and as deep as it is wide in the hindquarters. Their coat is soft and silky. Like most other rabbit breeds , the Californian does are also heavier than the bucks. On average, adult does weight up to 5.45 kg and bucks up to 4.9 kg. Photo from Wikipedia.
Read also: How to check pregnancy in rabbit

californian rabbit, californian rabbits, california
Today the Californian rabbit is mainly raised for their fur value and also for meat production. It is a very suitable breed for commercial production. People also raise them as show rabbit and also as pets.
Special Notes
The Californian rabbit is an wonderful breed with very beautiful appearance. They are also wonderful as pets and have a very nice and easy-going temperament. They are very good natured animal, calm and friendly. They are very active and playful, enjoy playing and exploring. The Californian does are good mothers and they produce large litters of 8-12 kits. Although they were developed for the purpose of showing or raising as pets. But today they are mainly raised for fur and meat production. Review full breed profile of the Californian rabbit in the chart below.

How to Start Profitable Snail Farming in Nigeria

One of the most lucrative agribusiness you can start with low capital in Nigeria is Snail farming . Yet, it is one of the most neglected animal rearing business in these countries. Snail farming provides one of the finest opportunity to make money within a short period of time. But why are Africans not yet fully engaged in this money making animal rearing? The reason is ignorance.
In Australia and USA, snail farming is big business, providing opportunities to many farmers. In Uk, snails can be seen in many supermarkets and stores. meaning it is a big deal there. Most people in Nigeria and Ghana still have the believe that snail can only be picked in the bush. The culture of going to the bush to pick snails in the villages during raining time has been there for generations. So, it is difficult for people to come to term that snail can actually be kept and grown at home.
Just like many other aspects of farming in these countries, Africans are yet to discover the great money making potential in this business and that is why we suffer in hunger and poverty. We neglect where the money is and keep pursuing it where it is not, going from one city to the other looking for one petty China made goods after another to trade on. Laboring away in Europe and America in search of greener pastures when our own continent is already green.
What is Snail and How Profitable is Snail Farming?
Land snails belongs to the class of Molluscan, Gastropod. The one popularly known as ‘Congo Meat ‘ in many parts of Africa. Nigeria – Eju , Igbin , etc… There are so many species of snails but the types we are looking at here are the ones that are suitable for commercial Snail Farming in Africa.
After reading this article, you will be on your way to starting your own snail farming business in easy and simple steps. And we are backing it up with a Practical Snail eBook for those who can afford it.
Making ₦5,000,000 annually in snail rearing is a done deal if you do it well and get get the whole process right.
I will try to be as comprehensive as possible with this article so that you can get going after reading it. As people starts commenting (asking questions and adding what they know about snail farming) this information will become more enriched for everyone’s benefit.
Which Snail Species is Suitable for Snail Farming?

1. Achatina Fulica

The East African land snail, or giant African land snail, scientific name Achatina fulica, is a species of large, air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Achatinidae. It is the smallest in size among all the desirable species for rearing in Africa.
Achatina fulica has a narrow, conical shell, which is twice as long as it is wide and contains 7 to 9 whorls when fully grown. The shell is generally reddish-brown in colour with weak yellowish vertical markings but colouration varies with environmental conditions and diet. A light coffee colour is common. Adults of the species may exceed 20cm in shell length but generally average about 5 to 10cm. The average weight of the snail is approximately 32 grams (Cooling 2005).

2. Achatina Achatina

Achatina achatina, common name the giant Ghana snail, also known as the giant tiger land snail, is a species of very large, air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Achatinidae. Giant African land snails are hemraphrodites, meaining they possess both the female and male reproductive organs. Two snails are still needed for breeding, but they are very prolific breeders.
Similar to the other species in the genus, Achatina achatina’s shell can attain a length of 200 mm and a maximum diameter of 100 mm. They may possess between 7-8 whorls and the shell is often broadly ovate. The body of the animal is silver-brown in color although albino morphs may exist.
Achatina-Achatina is very good for commercialization as well, because of its profitability. This is because of the volume of eggs it lays at once. Each achatina lays 300 to 500 eggs at a time in clutches, three times a year. Therefore, if you start a farm with about 1000 snails, in one year you would be getting about 1.5 million snails going by the number of eggs they produces.

3. Archachatina Marginata

Archachatina marginata, common name the giant West African snail, is a species of air-breathing tropical land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Achatinidae. They can grow up to 20cm long, and live up to 10 years.
Among these three species, Achatina Achatina is the most desirable for farmers because it grows so big to become the biggest snail species in the world. Achatina Achaina has it’s origin from Nigeria, get to Liberia from Nigeria and then Ghana
Another reason is due to it’s high yield capacity. The other species are very good too but I will focus on Achatina Achatina and Archachatina Marginata in this blog post because, they are easy to find in Nigeria.
Having decided on the specie, let’s take you through the step by step how to setup your snail farm in a small scale level and starts rearing your snail towards harvest.
Suitable Environment for Snail Farming
Snails are easily dehydrated, and wind increase the rate of moisture loose in snail which in turn, leads to the dryness of the animal. To prevent snails from losing water so quickly, your snaileries (the snail house) must be located in environment that is protected from wind.
A low plain, downhill site surrounded with enough trees is perfect for snail farming. You may plant plantains and bananas around your snail farm to prevent the impact of wind.
Type of Soil For Snail Farming
Snail’s major habitat is the soil, and soil contains some of the components and chemical substances that it needed to survive. However, not all soils are suitable for snail rearing. The shell of the snail is mainly calcium and it derive most of them from the soil. Snail also lay it’s eggs on the soil and drink water out of the soil.
Hence, the suitable soil for snail farming must contain these elements. Must be balanced, not waterlogged, not too dry, and must not be acidic. The most desirable soil for snail is sandy-loamy soil with low water holding capacity. Clayey soil and acidic soil must be avoided.
Getting The Sails For Farming
To start up a snail farm, it is advisable to get snails directly from the forest instead of buying from the market after they have been exposed to sunlight and have dehydrated. This is because snails drink a lot of water, so are easily dehydrated and this stresses them out, and reduce their fertility capacity.
The intending snail farmer could pick the snails from the bush with a very simple technique; clear a little portion of land during rainy season and sprinkle spicy fruits like pineapple, pawpaw, plantain, banana etc at about 5o’clock in the evening, when you go back there about 7pm or 8pm, you will pick up snails suitable for rearing. Repeat the procedure until you get enough quantity.
Another way could be to pick up snail eggs littered in the market place where it is sold and through a technique, check the fertility of the eggs, because some of them must have lost fertility due to the exposure to sunlight. The eggs are later put inside a container containing wet sand and covered with cocoyam leaf. Between 21 to 28 days, the eggs would hatch into baby snails. You start feeding them and gradually you raise a snail farm.”
Constructing the Snail House (Snailery)
Snaileries can vary from a patch of fence-protected ground, sheltered from the wind to a covered box if you are breeding in small scale.
For larger population of snails, you can dug a trench or make a concrete pen with soil deep of about 10 inches, and cover it with screen or wire all around to prevent the snails from escaping. Remember that snails can reproduce fast and become pests when their breeding is uncontrolled.
Snails love dark and cold places, but make sure the humidity does not drop to levels harmful to the snails. You can use fresh leaves and cloth that is regularly wet to regulate the temperature.
Also, the wire is useful in keeping away rats and snakes or other predators from eating the snails in your snail farm. But aside from these bigger predators, you should be wary about smaller ones like ants and termites. Your construction must have these predators in mind.
Snail Food and Feeding
Snails especially Achatina mainly feeds on green leaves and fruits though they can utilize other ranges of foods. Feed your snails leaves, fruits, or even formula from the feed store. Aside from food to grow tissues, snails need calcium to grow shells.
Leaves: Cocoyam leaves, pawpaw leaves, okra leaves, cassava leaves, eggplant leaves, cabbage and lettuce leaves.
Fruits : Mango, eggplant, pawpaw, banana, tomatoes, oil palm fruits, pears. and cucumber.
Once they start growing, separate the big ones from the small ones. It take more than a year for the Achatina type to grow to harvest size. Others mature in two years.
One hundred thousand snails after a year or two sold at the rate of N50 each (highly reduced price) will give you about N5 million! Isn’t that a good investment?
Harvesting the Snail
It is not economically wise to harvest your snails before it’s maturity, it has to be matured before harvesting. To know if your snails are already matured enough, check the brim of the shell. If it is matured enough, the brim should be thicker and harder than other parts of the shell.
Do not harvest all the matured snails at once for the market. It is important to keep few for breeding and to serve as base stock for your snail farm.

How to check or palpate Rabbit for pregnancy

    First let's define palpation in rabbit
       This is the method use in determining pregnancy in rabbit after having bred to a buck. Palpation help breeders to know if the rabbit is undergoing gestation or not, than waiting the whole 28—32 days.
      When to palpate
  I know after you have bred ur doe with a buck you will like to check if the rabbit is pregbat. So to that you must palpate the rabbit, but note Palpation is usually carried out around day 10-12 in which at this time each baby is approximately the grape size. Unless a female rabbit (also called a doe) is carrying a large litter, she will not show any external signs of pregnancy. Using the palpation method, rabbit breeder "feels" the developing babies by gently pressing the skin on the abdominal wall of the doe. Rabbit kits will feel almost the size of grapes inside the abdominal cavity of the doe. Pregnant rabbit will require gradual increase in feed( rabbit pellet) in order to provide the additional nutrients for the developing kits. Do not palpate a pregnant rabbit if it's been more than 14 days since the rabbit bred. Doing so may cause damage to the developing fetuses.

        How to palpate
    The rabbit(doe) womb is divided into two horns. Both horns can contain babies. Don't press too hard while palpating in order not to injure her or her developing kits.
Follow the below outline to palpate your doe. You should palpate the rabbit with your dominant hand, the hand you write with, and hold it with your other hand. You should palpate your rabbit on a plane smooth surface such as a table.

     1. Gently hold the rabbit's ears and a flap of shoulder skin in your right hand. This will secure the upper portion of the rabbit's body.
     2. Hold the scruff , i.e the area of skin on the back of your rabbit’s neck, firmly.
     3. Place your other hand below the rabbit, gently griping towards the front of the abdomen.
     4. Gently and smoothly cradle and relax your hand feeling the space in the abdomen as you move it towards the back of the rabbit.
     5. Then you will feel things in the rabbit’s abdomen, the kits will always feel approximately the size of grapes, and fecal material will feel harder. Remember to not press too hard - you don't want to injure the kits. Within two weeks of conception, you should be able to feel the young rabbits inside the mother rabbit's abdomen. But knowing how to actually feel for the fetuses without injuring them takes some skill. This is merely a general guide, and if you are not a veterinarian or experienced animal breeder you should not attempt to palpate a pregnant rabbit on your own.
     With this, I believe you know a little bit about rabbit.


Layer poultry Farming

Layer poultry farming means raising egg laying poultry birds for the purpose of commercial egg production. Layer chickens are such a special species of hens, which need to be raised from when they are one day old. They start laying eggs commercially from 18-19 weeks of age. They remain laying eggs continuously till their 72-78 weeks of age. They can produce about one kg of eggs by consuming about 2.25 kg of food during their egg laying period. For the purpose of producing hybrid eggs layer, consider the various characteristics of cock and hen before breeding. There are various types of highly egg productive layer breeds available throughout the world.

            Layer Breeds of fowl

According to the nature and color of egg, layer hens are of two types. Short description of these two types are listed below.
White Egg Laying Hens: This type of hens are comparatively smaller in size. Relatively eat less food, and the color of egg shell is white. Isa White, Lehman White, Nikchik, Bab Cock BV-300, Havard White, Hi Sex White, Sever White, Hi line White, Bovanch White etc. are some popular white egg laying chickens.
Brown Egg Laying Hens: Brown egg laying hens are relatively larger in size. They eat more foods, compared to white egg layers. Lay bigger eggs than other laying breeds. Egg shell is brown colored. There are many types of brown layer available. Among those Isa Brown, Hi Sex Brown, Sever 579, Lehman Brown, Hi Line Brown, Bab Cock BV-380, Gold Line, Bablona Tetro, Bablona Harko, Havard Brown etc. are very suitable for commercial
layer poultry farming .

Layer Hen Selection

You have to keep in mind some essential information before selecting the layer hens for your poultry farming business. You have to select those breeds which are suitable for your layer poultry farming business and can produce well in your area. Read below for selecting proper breeds for your business.
chicken, chicken picture, layer chicken, layer
For commercial eggs production, you have to chose highly productive laying hens correctly.
All type of hens do not produce equal number of eggs.
The chosen breeds must have to have good production capability.
If your chosen breed contain the desired characteristic and have a reputation for egg production, then that breed is suitable for your business.
Always purchase healthy chicks from a famous and popular hatchery. You can see their catalog before purchasing.

   Keeping Chicks

During the first weeks after birth, many chicks do not want to drink water due to transporting them from one place to another. So you have to make adequate water drinking systems in their brooder house, and you have to train them for drinking water. Mix 5% glucose with water, so that they can easily get energy. Provide them any types of high quality multivitamin by mixing with water (suggested by electrolyte production companies instruction). Multivitamin and electrolyte are very effective when you transport chick from a long distance. It reduces tiredness and lack of water, and help to make the chick normal.

   Vaccination and it’s Importance

Vaccination program is a must for chicks for keeping them free from all types of diseases. The main advantage of poultry vaccination are listed below.
Timely vaccination makes disease resistance power in the body of chick.
Help to keep the hen free from infective poultry diseases.
Disease prevalence will be less.
Mortality rate will reduce.
And low mortality rate = more production = more profit.
There are many types of poultry vaccines are available for layer hens. Marex, Ranikheth, Gamboro, Bruchaities, Bosonto, Salmonela etc. are used for layer chickens.

   Before Vaccination

You have to maintain some rules before vaccination.
Hold the chickens very carefully.
Vaccinate the chickens without any strain.
There is no need to vaccinate the ill hen.
Wash the vaccination equipment with hot boiled water or germicide medicine/antiseptic.
Do the vaccination program in cold weather condition.
Preventive vaccine is always applicable to healthy bird. Never vaccinate an infected bird.

   Keeping Growing Chicks

You have to maintain the suggestion listed below for keeping growing layer chickens.
chicken, chicken picture, layer chicken, layer
You have to provide the growing chicks special care until they reach 4-5 weeks of age.
After brooding serve them good quality pellet feed. It will make good results in the future. They will produce egg highly. High quality pellet will make the chickens healthy and increase their body weight.
So it is very important to provide them quality pellet feed during growing period.
Egg Production from Commercial Layer Farm
Egg production from a commercial layer farm depends on the care and farm management. If you take good care of your birds and manage them properly, then the production and profit will be high.
Withing the first 20 weeks of age, about 5% of hens start laying eggs.
About 10% birds start laying at their 21 weeks of age.
When they reach 26 to 30 weeks of age, they produce highly. Although, it may be different depending on their strain.
After laying a maximum number of eggs, they usually stop laying for a few days.
And after this period, their egg production might reduces slowly.
Egg laying rate and size of eggs increases gradually.
The hens grow till their 40 weeks of age.
Weight and size of eggs increases till their 50 weeks of age.

  Importance and method of Lip Cutting

Cutting the lip of laying hens is very important. The main benefits are listed below.
Lip cutting help to reduce mutual fights.
It help to prevent food waste.
You have to cut your chick’s lip at their age of 8 to 10 days.
Cut the lip of growing chicken at their 8 to 12 weeks of age.
Cut the lip of chicks 0.2 cm from their nose.
Cut 0.45 cm in case of growing chickens.
Cut the both upper and lower lips.
Don’t cut the both lip together. Cut one after another.
Use block chick trimming machine to cut the lips.
Don’t cut their lip two days after or before vaccination, after or before using some medicines like sulfur. Don’t cut the lip if the hen in a strain, and during adverse weather conditions and if the hen start laying eggs.
chicken, poultry, poultry farming, layer chicken
Serve the chicken water mixed with vitamin “K” three days before cutting lips. Wash the lip cutting instrument with antiseptic. Test the edge and temperature of blade. You have to be careful, and don’t damage their eyes and tongue. Choose cold weather for cutting their lips. Lip cutting process should be observed by an experienced technician. After cutting lips, serve them water in a deep pot. Provide them some extra energy enriched feed.


There are many companies available throughout the world, which are producing commercial feed for layer chickens. You can buy feed from your local market or make the feed at your own house. You have to be sure that the feed you bought are enriched with essential food value. Protein and mineral are very important for laying hens.
Provide 2% of calcium for two weeks after their birth.
If you notice they are not gaining expected weight, then you have to serve starter feed for eight weeks.
Serve feed two or three times in a day till their 18 weeks of age.
Demand of feed increase very fast when the birds start laying.
Serve them layer poultry feed according to their age and weights.
Don’t decrease the amount of feed while laying (even if their weight increase).

  Water Management

Chickens health depend on the supply of pure, clean and fresh drinking water. You have to provide adequate water according to the demand of your laying hens. For purifying the water, mix 0.3 g bliching per litter. Determine a suitable place to keep the water pot inside the poultry house. Supply cold water during summer season and hot weather, and slightly hot water in cold weather or winter season.
In accordance with the age and species of chickens, food providing can control the weights of chicken. Use sufficient calcium, phosphorus, vitamins, amino acid and other mineral substance in their food. For purifying water use bliching powder or chlorine. If you follow the methods mentioned above, then you can make better profit from your layer poultry farming business.

Rabbit farming in Nigeria

Have you ever considered rabbit farming as a top business opportunity?
Though rabbit meat may not be as common as chicken , beef or pork , there’s no doubt it’s a very lucrative business; every year, over one million tons of rabbit meat is consumed worldwide.
The world’s four biggest producers and consumers of rabbit meat are: China, Italy, Spain and France.
In Africa, the consumption of rabbit meat is gradually taking off and a few farmers on the continent are already enjoying the benefits of this niche business.
In this article, I’ll share the success stories of three farmers in Ghana and Kenya who have achieved remarkable success with their rabbit farms.
For those of you reading this who don’t know, rabbit meat contains the highest amounts of digestible proteins and the lowest cholesterol and fat of all types of meat. Rabbits are also easy to raise; they’re clean and require little capital, labour, time and space to manage.
This article will open your eyes to the amazing benefits of the rabbit business and offers some valuable and free resources you can use to get started. I had fun doing the research for this article. I hope you have fun reading it!
Three successful African Rabbit Farmers you need to know
Africa already boasts of a few rabbit farmers who started from nothing but have built remarkably successful rabbit farm businesses. Their success in spite of capital and skill challenges will inspire and encourage you to take action on your
business ideas.
Let’s meet them!
Farmer Brown (Ghana)
Adotei Brown (popularly known as ‘Farmer Brown’) quit his Civil Service job in 2002 to start his rabbit farm on a small scale with three does (female rabbits) and one buck (male).
With just about 10 Ghanaian Cedis (about $3), he reinvested all his profits into the business. Today, his farm grows nearly 3,000 rabbits every year and slaughters up to 500 every week for sale to grocery stores, restaurants and hotels. The average price for his rabbits is about 20 Ghana Cedis (about $6) and business is booming.
Farmer Brown has become a popular advocate for the consumption of rabbit meat in Ghana. He has a special eatery for rabbit meat on his farm, which attracts visitors, including tourists.
His eatery serves tasty rabbit meat in different forms: grilled, smoked and cooked. He also has a thriving grasscutter (bush meat) farming business that runs side-by-side with the rabbit farm.
Farmer Brown has dedicated himself to training more young people in Ghana to take up rabbit farming. To assure a steady market for the young generation of farmers he trains, he buys mature rabbits from them to ensure they have a steady cash flow from the business.
Moses Mutua, CEO Rabbit Republic (Kenya)
Popularly known as ‘Mr. Rabbit’ in Kenya, Moses Mutua grew up in a poor family and couldn’t further his education because his family couldn’t afford to pay for it.
Although he always wanted to become a policeman, he never reached that dream. Instead he got a job as a security guard and worked at it for five years before he got fired.
Before he became Mr. Rabbit, Moses had already tried greenhouse farming, fish farming , organic farming, but settled on rabbits because they are the most lucrative domesticated animals in the world in terms of time, space utilisation and profit margins.
Moses learned everything about rabbit farming from the internet (by using Google) and finally started a small rabbit farm with just six rabbits. That’s how his company, Rabbit Republic, was born. (photo credit:
Today, Rabbit Republic has a turnover that’s more than Sh10 million (about $100,000) and slaughters about 2,000 rabbits every month.
His business has attracted investors and Moses is currently developing a five-acre farm that will breed about 30,000 rabbits. The video below shows Mr. Rabbit in action on his farm as he explains the profitability of the rabbit farming business and why more entrepreneurs should seriously consider it.
Rabbit Republic now has a network of over 1,000 rabbit farmers across Kenya who receive free training and support and in turn sell their mature rabbits to the company.
This expansion has paid off as Rabbit Republic has now opened shop in neighbouring countries; Uganda and Tanzania. But that’s not all. By mid-2015, the company plans to export one ton of rabbit sausages to the US and Europe where the demand for healthy meats (like rabbits) is growing.
Mr. Rabbit wants to make Kenya a major player in the untapped global rabbit meat market. Currently, China, Italy, Spain and France are the leading producers of rabbit meat which has earned a reputation as a ‘super meat’ due to its nutritional and health benefits.
Rabbit Republic is now partnering with universities and local/international organisations to train more youths and women on rabbit farming as a means to alleviate poverty.
Charles Kamau (Kenya)
Charles started a small rabbit farm in 2004 to provide organic fertilizer for his
vegetable farm . He lost his job in the hospitality industry and had to do something to feed his young family. His first attempt at raising rabbits was a disaster because he lost all his animals to diseases.
Despite his frustration, he did some basic research, learned from his mistakes and started again. This time, it was a huge success and he even had to demolish part of his house to create more space for his thriving rabbit business.
Charles holding up a Flemish Giant, one of the largest rabbit breeds in the world.
(Photo credit: Kenya Rabbit Network)
Charles Kamau stocks a wide range of rabbit breeds which he sells to new farmers and also slaughters rabbits which we supplies to local meat markets.
His top customers include foreign nationals living in Kenya, restaurants and five-star hotels. In fact, he once got an order from China to supply a consignment of 22,000 pieces of rabbit fur but was unable to meet that huge request. This just shows how big the demand for rabbit products is.
Charles says he is now able to save more than Sh20,000 (about $220) every month from his rabbit business. The business also provides money to feed his family and pay
school fees for his children who attend private schools.
A few years ago, he was able to buy some plots of land in Nairobi (Kenya’s capital city) and recently bought a car and a 12-acre property where he is planning to establish a much larger rabbit farm.
3 Reasons why you should seriously consider rabbit farming
The success stories of these rabbit farmers prove the huge and largely untapped potential of the rabbit farming business in Africa. In this section, I’ll reveal three major reasons why you should seriously consider the rabbit farming business opportunity. Here they are:
#1 There is a huge market opportunity for rabbits
The growing rate of heart disease and related ailments has increased awareness of the harmful effects of cholesterol in our diets.
More people are now going for ‘white’ meat which contains low amounts of cholesterol. Unlike ‘red meats’ (especially beef and pork), white meats like ostrich, poultry, fish and rabbit meat contain less fats and cholesterols and have higher health benefits. (photo credit:
Apart from fish, rabbit meat has the highest amount of protein and contains the lowest fat than all other types of meat. It contains less calories and Sodium than other meats but contains more calcium and phosphorus (which is very good).
As a result of these properties, rabbit meat has become the ‘super meat’ for people looking to eat healthy meats and live a healthier lifestyle. Rabbit meat is also very widely accepted. Unlike snails and pork , there are hardly any religious or cultural taboos about consuming rabbit meat.
More than 700 million rabbits are slaughtered worldwide every year, producing about 1 million metric tons of rabbit meat. The world’s leader in rabbit meat production is China, representing over 30% of total global production.
Rabbit meat is popular in countries such as Italy, Spain, France and China. These countries consume the most rabbit per person (about 8kg per person) and are the best export markets for rabbit meat.
Rabbits produce high quality skins that are used to make fur garments (like clothing, hats and boots), and to cover bicycle seats, etc. Another significant use of rabbits is in cosmetic, medical and pharmaceutical research laboratories. Rabbits are also purchased by people who want to keep them as pets.
#2 Rabbit farming is lucrative because rabbits multiply very fast
A single doe (female rabbit) can give birth to (litter) up to 40 kits (baby rabbits) in a single year. This means you can start with two mature breeding rabbits (one male, one female) and end up with over 40 rabbits in less than 12 months. That’s because rabbits can breed throughout the year and it takes just about a month (30-33 days) for a pregnant doe to produce baby rabbits.
Photo credit:
After they are born, rabbits grow very fast and can reach maturity and market size in less than 6 months. One of the reasons for this fast growth rate is that rabbits are efficient converters of the food they eat.
Compared to other livestock animals (poultry, cattle, pigs etc), rabbits convert up to 20 percent of the proteins they eat into body weight. That’s higher than any other animal!
A mature rabbit ready for market can sell for up to $22 (depending on the location and customer). However, the cost of raising a rabbit comes to about $1 per month.
According to Moses Mutua (CEO of Rabbit Republic), the resources and cost incurred on raising one cow is equivalent to what you’d use to raise 40 rabbits. As a result, rabbits offer a higher profit potential than cattle and other livestock.
And because rabbits mature quickly and multiply very fast, they offer one of the best opportunities to quickly recover your costs and investment in a short period of time.
#3 Easy to start, cheap to operate and maintain
Rabbits don’t need any elaborate preparation or huge capital to start up. You can start with two rabbits (male and female) using a basic cage made of wood and chicken wire.
Unlike chickens, cattle and pigs, rabbits are not noisy animals. They are very clean animals and don’t easily get attacked by diseases.
Above all, rabbits don’t require a lot of space like other livestock; it’s the ideal animal to raise in your backyard or any place with little space. (photo credit:
Raising rabbits is not labour-intensive like cattle and poultry. Rabbits are easy to feed and often don’t need a lot of attention. As a result, a rabbit farming business can be run on a part time basis.
Some kitchen waste, grass, plant leaves etc. are favorite foods of rabbits. In fact, a single rabbit needs just about 120 grams of food daily. You can feed it in the morning before you go to work and then in the evening when you return.
So, in terms of capital, time, space and labour needs, rabbit farming beats poultry, pig farming, and cattle farming.
Ready to start your own rabbit farm? Here are two important tips.
If you’re excited about everything you’ve read so far in this article and can’t wait to join the small but fast growing league of ‘rabbit entrepreneurs in Africa, here are two very important things you need to do to get started:
#1 Learn the nuts and bolts of rabbit farming
I don’t believe you must pay someone to teach you how to raise rabbits. People like Moses Mutua (Rabbit Republic) learned everything about rabbit farming on the internet.
There are lots of free manuals and videos online that will help you. I have done some homework for you and found two of the best manuals on the internet that you can use to learn everything you need to know about rabbit farming. Here they are:
Rabbits, A Producer’s Manual – This 61-page manual is the most comprehensive book on rabbit farming you will ever find. It contains everything you need to know about rabbits including breeding, slaughter and packaging. I strongly recommend it.
Raising Rabbits for Meat – This is another great resource for learning everything about rabbit farming. It’s written in very simple language which makes it easy to understand. It covers a lot of topics including how to build rabbit hutches and the common diseases that affect rabbits. You’ll surely enjoy reading it.
#2 Find good breeder stock to get started
Breeder stock are the first rabbits a new farmer starts her rabbit business with. Like I mentioned earlier, the minimum stock you need to get started is one male (buck) and one female rabbit (doe).
If you want, you can start with more does; one buck can service up to five does. Ask around for local farmers who can sell you a good breeder stock. Ask for evidence that proves the gender of the rabbits you buy so you don’t end up with all males or females.
Keep in mind that there are several breeds of rabbit. However, some breeds are better suited for commercial farming than others.
Commercial breeds grow into large sizes and produce faster. Show rabbit breeds, which are often smaller than commercial breeds, are popularly used as pets or raised for their fur and may not be suited for commercial meat production.
The best places to find rabbit farmers are your local livestock markets, Agriculture ministry or department or through local farmers’ associations.
When do you want to get started?
This article has shown you how three rabbit farmers in different parts of Africa achieved remarkable success in the rabbit farming business.
We also looked at three reasons why more African entrepreneurs should consider joining the rabbit farming business. And finally, we shared some valuable resources that would help you get started as soon as possible. (photo credit:
Have any questions or comments? I would love to hear from you in the comments section below.
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To your success!
And by the way, if you enjoyed reading this article and you’re thinking of raising capital to start or grow your business, you’ll love my amazing and life-changing FREE course.


British Giant Rabbit Breed Information

The British Giant rabbit is a large breed of domestic rabbit derived from the Flemish Giant rabbit . It arose as a separate breed in the United Kingdom in the 1940s. British Giant rabbits were bred from the Flemish Giant stock of varying colors from the United States. In Britain, the breed standard of the Flemish Giant is only recognized in steel gray coloring and may be somewhat smaller than the original European Flemish Giants, a breed that originates in Belgium. Thus the British Giant rabbit was bred for a greater variety in coloring and although smaller than continental Flemish rabbits, retain broadly the same characteristics. The British Giant rabbit is not recognized by the American Rabbit Breeders Association, but it is recognized by the British Rabbit Council. The breed is virtually unknown outside the United Kingdom.
British Giant Rabbit Characteristics
The British Giant rabbit is pretty smaller than it’s ancestor, the Flemish Giants. But it is the largest breed of all British rabbits. The breed has a substantial build long body. They have broad straight back, rounded haunches and powerful legs. Their body is large and powerful. The fur of the British Giant rabbit is medium in length, dense and soft. And their fur comes in a variety of colors including Black, Blue, Grey, Opal, Sable and White. Their head is wide with full cheeks. And the ears of the British Giant rabbit are large and erect. As a large breed of rabbit, the British Giants can grow up to 7 kg. But their average body weight is about 5.4 to 5.9 kg. Photo from Wikipedia.
british giant rabbit, british giant rabbits, about
British Giant rabbit is mainly raised for meat production. But if they are handled early and regularly enough, then they will become very affectionate and good pets.
Special Notes
British Giant rabbits have the same calm, friendly temperament as the Flemish Giants. They are docile, gentle and amenable like some other large
rabbit breeds . But they are not very active compared to other breeds. They will be more than happy to lie around watching the world go by. They are perfect house rabbit and will live very happily with other animals and children. They have good temperament and rarely aggressive, which make them excellent as pets. They enjoy human interaction and love affection. But they will be happy by snoozing or stretching out and watching the action rather take part in it. The British Giant rabbit require regular grooming for keeping it’s fur in good condition and prevent it from becoming matted. Their average lifespan is about 4 to 6 years. However, review full breed profile of the British Giant rabbit in the following chart.

     British Giant Rabbit | Breed Profile

Breed Name                                    British Giant

Other Name                                      None

Breed Purpose                                 Mainly kept for meat, also good as pets.

Breed Size                                        Large

Weight                                              5.4 to 5.9 kg

Good as Pets                                   Yes

Climate Tolerance                          All Climates

Color Varieties                                Black, Blue, Brown Grey, Steel Grey, Opal, White

Rarity                                                Common

Country of Origin                            United Kingdom

How to know the difference between male and female Duck

I will teach you some differences between male and female ducks . But the differences between male and female ducks will not be readily obvious, depending on he duck species. Although if you know what to listen and look for, then you will be better able to tell a male duck from female ducks.
Differences Between Male and Female Ducks
There are four principal ways for knowing or determining  a duck’s gender. And these ways are sound, behavior, external appearance and internal anatomy. However, here we are describing more about the differences between male and female ducks.
1. Physical Appearance
In many duck species, the male ducks have more colorful feathers and bills. And the females generally exhibit duller colors. For example, the male Mallard ducks have glossy green heads, bright yellow bills and bodies of brown, gray and black. Whereas the female Mallards have an orange and brown bill and a mottled-brown body color. The male Mallard ducks have white tail feathers and a black-tail-curl that females lack. The Northern Shoveler male ducks have a white chest with chestnut flank, but the females have a brownish speckled body. In many species, the male ducks will have very bright coloration in their plumage for attracting mates during the mating season. And the males will molt and lose their bright coloration after mating season, and resemble a female.

2. Observing the bill color: this is another way to tell the differences between male and female ducks. The bill color doesn’t change during the mating season in many duck species. In case of Mallard ducks , the bill color of the males is bright yellow and the females have a brown and orange bill. The Mottled male ducks have a bill that is a solid olive green to yellow color. And the female’s bill is brown to orange with dark spotches. The male Wood ducks have a red bill that has a patch of yellow at the bottom.
3. Curled Feather Near the Tail
The male ducks will generally have an upwardly curled feather near their tail. In males this feather will become noticeable in male ducks when they are aged between 2 and 4 months, and remains after molting. The females generally don’t have this feather.
how to differentiate male and female ducks,
4. Check the Vent i.e reproductive organs 
Ducks’ reproductive organs are inside their bodies. So, telling the males apart from the females takes a little more expertise if you’re attempting to make a distinction based on the plumbing. Although, it’s possible to roll a duck over and turn its vent outward so you can see the organs. Unless you’ve had experience doing this, checking a duck’s vent to determine gender is best left to the vet.
5. The Size
In most duck species, the males are generally larger than the females. The male Rouens , Welsh Harlequins and Mallard ducks have larger heads and thicker necks than the females, but their body is larger.
6. Sound
The female ducks generally have a hard and loud quack than the males. And the males generally have rough and soft quack.
7.Seasonal Changes
The male and female ducks look alike in some duck breeds during certain seasons, for example during breeding season. Freckled duck is one such breed. The males and the females have identical feathers, but the male sports a red color on his bill during breeding.
8. Differences in behavior 
There are some behavioral differences between male and female ducks. The male ducks generally have a wide variety of species-and gender-specific behaviors that differ from those of their female counterparts. For example, male Mallard ducks court females by bobbing their heads from one side to the other (glancing over their shoulders or flapping their wings as they raise up above the water). The Mallard will make threatening moves with an open bill and an acrobatic chase, when confronted by another male. The male Bufflehead ducks attract females by flying overhead and then skidding to a halt on the water, raising their crests and bobbing their heads.
In most duck breeds, the differences between male and female ducks are easily identified. You can easily identify males and females if you raise
ducks for sometimes.
The male ducks are generally more colorful than the female ducks.
In case of size, the males are generally larger than the females.
The males of most species have a prominent curled feather near the tail, which is not present in the tail of females.
Male ducks have softer and and harsher quack, while the females have distinctive loud quack.
The males have an extended or elongated genital organ whereas females have a cone-like genital organ.
The female ducks are known as hens or simply ducks, while the male ducks are known as drakes.
These are the common differences between male and female ducks. You will be able to differentiate males and females easily if you raise them for sometime.

How to know and check a pregnant cow

Read carefully to know how to tell if a cow or heifer is pregnant.
    Actually, determining pregnancy in cattle is very very important especially for breeders and it has many benefits. And determining pregnancy in cattle is highly recommended for the cattle farmer for maximizing cattle breeding efficiency. Pregnancy diagnosis by rectal palpation has been performed for decades in cattle. But this system involves an experienced person introducing his hand and arm into the rectum of the heifer or cow and feeling the fetus physically. A skillful palpator can diagnose pregnancy as early as around 40 days of gestation and later. Due to the variation in size of individual fetuses can make it pretty difficult as the fetus gets larger (but it is usually possible to determine the gestation length).
Determining Pregnancy in Cattle
Generally a cow or heifer is assumed to be pregnant if it’s estrus signs are not observed around 3 weeks after artificial insemination or service through a bull. Although not all the cows or heifers will be pregnant even if estrus detection is good. On the other hand, during pregnancy some pregnant cows or heifers (around 7 percent) can show some signs of estrus. Artificial insemination of these animals may result in embryonic or foetal death. However, currently the most reliable methods of determining pregnancy in cattle are ; hormone measurements, rectal palpation, early pregnancy-associated protein and ultrasound examination. Here we are describing more about the easiest ways of determining pregnancy in cattle.
Rectal Palpation
Rectal palpation is the most easiest and old method for determining pregnancy in cattle. The main advantages of this method is immediate result which ensures early treatment of non-pregnant cows or heifers. Although accuracy in this method depends on the experience of the practitioner and the accuracy rate can reach around 95 percent. Rectal palpation method is generally done between 35 and 65 days after artificial insemination. You can call an expert in your area for determining pregnancy in cattle through this method.
how to determine pregnancy in cow or heifer,
Early Pregnancy-associated Protein
The most recent available test for determining pregnancy in cattle is called ECF (early conception factor), or pregnancy-associated glycoprotein in blood samples. This also an easy way, and the method can detect the pregnancy-associated glycoprotein within 2 days (or 48 hours) of conception. By the way, this test should be treated solely as an conception indication because of the high incidence of embryonic mortality. And pregnancy can be confirmed later by rectal or ultrasound examination.
Ultrasound Examination
This is also a very effective way for determining pregnancy in cattle. Real time ultrasound is a relatively simple and reliable system for determining pregnancy in cattle as early as day 26. And generally accuracy in this method is very high (sometimes with over 99 percent).
Behaviour & Physical Changes
You can also detect pregnancy of your cows or heifers by yourself. You can observe the behavior of you cows and heifers, and it is one of the best non-invasive means of determining pregnancy in cattle. On an average, the estrous cycle in cattle occurs every 21 days. If a heifer or cow has absorbed or aborted the embryo, she will soon come into estrus and continue regular cycling until she conceives again.
The bulls generally don’t show interest to any cows that maintain pregnancy. They generally show interest if a cow or heifer that comes into heat. So, observing the behavior of your bulls (if there are any) is also a great way for determining pregnancy in cattle.
Paying attention to the physical changes of your heifers and cows is also a way for determining pregnancy in cattle. Common physical changes in a pregnant cow or heifer includes changes to size, changes to body shape, and abdomen and udder changes. The udder begins to fill out more and reach maturity in heifers (virgin heifers that are not yet conceived will have and under-developed udder that is only resembled by the presence of four small teats tucked up under their belly between their hind legs).
These are the common ways of determining pregnancy in cattle. If you are a beginner, then please contact an experienced person for learning more. Comment

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