Farm

How to Start Profitable Snail Farming in Nigeria

One of the most lucrative agribusiness you can start with low capital in Nigeria is Snail farming . Yet, it is one of the most neglected animal rearing business in these countries. Snail farming provides one of the finest opportunity to make money within a short period of time. But why are Africans not yet fully engaged in this money making animal rearing? The reason is ignorance.
In Australia and USA, snail farming is big business, providing opportunities to many farmers. In Uk, snails can be seen in many supermarkets and stores. meaning it is a big deal there. Most people in Nigeria and Ghana still have the believe that snail can only be picked in the bush. The culture of going to the bush to pick snails in the villages during raining time has been there for generations. So, it is difficult for people to come to term that snail can actually be kept and grown at home.
Just like many other aspects of farming in these countries, Africans are yet to discover the great money making potential in this business and that is why we suffer in hunger and poverty. We neglect where the money is and keep pursuing it where it is not, going from one city to the other looking for one petty China made goods after another to trade on. Laboring away in Europe and America in search of greener pastures when our own continent is already green.
What is Snail and How Profitable is Snail Farming?
Land snails belongs to the class of Molluscan, Gastropod. The one popularly known as ‘Congo Meat ‘ in many parts of Africa. Nigeria – Eju , Igbin , etc… There are so many species of snails but the types we are looking at here are the ones that are suitable for commercial Snail Farming in Africa.
After reading this article, you will be on your way to starting your own snail farming business in easy and simple steps. And we are backing it up with a Practical Snail eBook for those who can afford it.
Making ₦5,000,000 annually in snail rearing is a done deal if you do it well and get get the whole process right.
I will try to be as comprehensive as possible with this article so that you can get going after reading it. As people starts commenting (asking questions and adding what they know about snail farming) this information will become more enriched for everyone’s benefit.
Which Snail Species is Suitable for Snail Farming?

1. Achatina Fulica

The East African land snail, or giant African land snail, scientific name Achatina fulica, is a species of large, air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Achatinidae. It is the smallest in size among all the desirable species for rearing in Africa.
Achatina fulica has a narrow, conical shell, which is twice as long as it is wide and contains 7 to 9 whorls when fully grown. The shell is generally reddish-brown in colour with weak yellowish vertical markings but colouration varies with environmental conditions and diet. A light coffee colour is common. Adults of the species may exceed 20cm in shell length but generally average about 5 to 10cm. The average weight of the snail is approximately 32 grams (Cooling 2005).

2. Achatina Achatina

Achatina achatina, common name the giant Ghana snail, also known as the giant tiger land snail, is a species of very large, air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Achatinidae. Giant African land snails are hemraphrodites, meaining they possess both the female and male reproductive organs. Two snails are still needed for breeding, but they are very prolific breeders.
Similar to the other species in the genus, Achatina achatina’s shell can attain a length of 200 mm and a maximum diameter of 100 mm. They may possess between 7-8 whorls and the shell is often broadly ovate. The body of the animal is silver-brown in color although albino morphs may exist.
Achatina-Achatina is very good for commercialization as well, because of its profitability. This is because of the volume of eggs it lays at once. Each achatina lays 300 to 500 eggs at a time in clutches, three times a year. Therefore, if you start a farm with about 1000 snails, in one year you would be getting about 1.5 million snails going by the number of eggs they produces.

3. Archachatina Marginata

Archachatina marginata, common name the giant West African snail, is a species of air-breathing tropical land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Achatinidae. They can grow up to 20cm long, and live up to 10 years.
Among these three species, Achatina Achatina is the most desirable for farmers because it grows so big to become the biggest snail species in the world. Achatina Achaina has it’s origin from Nigeria, get to Liberia from Nigeria and then Ghana
Another reason is due to it’s high yield capacity. The other species are very good too but I will focus on Achatina Achatina and Archachatina Marginata in this blog post because, they are easy to find in Nigeria.
Having decided on the specie, let’s take you through the step by step how to setup your snail farm in a small scale level and starts rearing your snail towards harvest.
Suitable Environment for Snail Farming
Snails are easily dehydrated, and wind increase the rate of moisture loose in snail which in turn, leads to the dryness of the animal. To prevent snails from losing water so quickly, your snaileries (the snail house) must be located in environment that is protected from wind.
A low plain, downhill site surrounded with enough trees is perfect for snail farming. You may plant plantains and bananas around your snail farm to prevent the impact of wind.
Type of Soil For Snail Farming
Snail’s major habitat is the soil, and soil contains some of the components and chemical substances that it needed to survive. However, not all soils are suitable for snail rearing. The shell of the snail is mainly calcium and it derive most of them from the soil. Snail also lay it’s eggs on the soil and drink water out of the soil.
Hence, the suitable soil for snail farming must contain these elements. Must be balanced, not waterlogged, not too dry, and must not be acidic. The most desirable soil for snail is sandy-loamy soil with low water holding capacity. Clayey soil and acidic soil must be avoided.
Getting The Sails For Farming
To start up a snail farm, it is advisable to get snails directly from the forest instead of buying from the market after they have been exposed to sunlight and have dehydrated. This is because snails drink a lot of water, so are easily dehydrated and this stresses them out, and reduce their fertility capacity.
The intending snail farmer could pick the snails from the bush with a very simple technique; clear a little portion of land during rainy season and sprinkle spicy fruits like pineapple, pawpaw, plantain, banana etc at about 5o’clock in the evening, when you go back there about 7pm or 8pm, you will pick up snails suitable for rearing. Repeat the procedure until you get enough quantity.
Another way could be to pick up snail eggs littered in the market place where it is sold and through a technique, check the fertility of the eggs, because some of them must have lost fertility due to the exposure to sunlight. The eggs are later put inside a container containing wet sand and covered with cocoyam leaf. Between 21 to 28 days, the eggs would hatch into baby snails. You start feeding them and gradually you raise a snail farm.”
Constructing the Snail House (Snailery)
Snaileries can vary from a patch of fence-protected ground, sheltered from the wind to a covered box if you are breeding in small scale.
For larger population of snails, you can dug a trench or make a concrete pen with soil deep of about 10 inches, and cover it with screen or wire all around to prevent the snails from escaping. Remember that snails can reproduce fast and become pests when their breeding is uncontrolled.
Snails love dark and cold places, but make sure the humidity does not drop to levels harmful to the snails. You can use fresh leaves and cloth that is regularly wet to regulate the temperature.
Also, the wire is useful in keeping away rats and snakes or other predators from eating the snails in your snail farm. But aside from these bigger predators, you should be wary about smaller ones like ants and termites. Your construction must have these predators in mind.
Snail Food and Feeding
Snails especially Achatina mainly feeds on green leaves and fruits though they can utilize other ranges of foods. Feed your snails leaves, fruits, or even formula from the feed store. Aside from food to grow tissues, snails need calcium to grow shells.
Leaves: Cocoyam leaves, pawpaw leaves, okra leaves, cassava leaves, eggplant leaves, cabbage and lettuce leaves.
Fruits : Mango, eggplant, pawpaw, banana, tomatoes, oil palm fruits, pears. and cucumber.
Once they start growing, separate the big ones from the small ones. It take more than a year for the Achatina type to grow to harvest size. Others mature in two years.
One hundred thousand snails after a year or two sold at the rate of N50 each (highly reduced price) will give you about N5 million! Isn’t that a good investment?
Harvesting the Snail
It is not economically wise to harvest your snails before it’s maturity, it has to be matured before harvesting. To know if your snails are already matured enough, check the brim of the shell. If it is matured enough, the brim should be thicker and harder than other parts of the shell.
Do not harvest all the matured snails at once for the market. It is important to keep few for breeding and to serve as base stock for your snail farm.
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How to check or palpate Rabbit for pregnancy

    First let's define palpation in rabbit
       This is the method use in determining pregnancy in rabbit after having bred to a buck. Palpation help breeders to know if the rabbit is undergoing gestation or not, than waiting the whole 28—32 days.
 
      When to palpate
  I know after you have bred ur doe with a buck you will like to check if the rabbit is pregbat. So to that you must palpate the rabbit, but note Palpation is usually carried out around day 10-12 in which at this time each baby is approximately the grape size. Unless a female rabbit (also called a doe) is carrying a large litter, she will not show any external signs of pregnancy. Using the palpation method, rabbit breeder "feels" the developing babies by gently pressing the skin on the abdominal wall of the doe. Rabbit kits will feel almost the size of grapes inside the abdominal cavity of the doe. Pregnant rabbit will require gradual increase in feed( rabbit pellet) in order to provide the additional nutrients for the developing kits. Do not palpate a pregnant rabbit if it's been more than 14 days since the rabbit bred. Doing so may cause damage to the developing fetuses.



        How to palpate
    The rabbit(doe) womb is divided into two horns. Both horns can contain babies. Don't press too hard while palpating in order not to injure her or her developing kits.
Follow the below outline to palpate your doe. You should palpate the rabbit with your dominant hand, the hand you write with, and hold it with your other hand. You should palpate your rabbit on a plane smooth surface such as a table.

     1. Gently hold the rabbit's ears and a flap of shoulder skin in your right hand. This will secure the upper portion of the rabbit's body.
     2. Hold the scruff , i.e the area of skin on the back of your rabbit’s neck, firmly.
     3. Place your other hand below the rabbit, gently griping towards the front of the abdomen.
     4. Gently and smoothly cradle and relax your hand feeling the space in the abdomen as you move it towards the back of the rabbit.
     5. Then you will feel things in the rabbit’s abdomen, the kits will always feel approximately the size of grapes, and fecal material will feel harder. Remember to not press too hard - you don't want to injure the kits. Within two weeks of conception, you should be able to feel the young rabbits inside the mother rabbit's abdomen. But knowing how to actually feel for the fetuses without injuring them takes some skill. This is merely a general guide, and if you are not a veterinarian or experienced animal breeder you should not attempt to palpate a pregnant rabbit on your own.
     With this, I believe you know a little bit about rabbit.

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Layer poultry Farming

Layer poultry farming means raising egg laying poultry birds for the purpose of commercial egg production. Layer chickens are such a special species of hens, which need to be raised from when they are one day old. They start laying eggs commercially from 18-19 weeks of age. They remain laying eggs continuously till their 72-78 weeks of age. They can produce about one kg of eggs by consuming about 2.25 kg of food during their egg laying period. For the purpose of producing hybrid eggs layer, consider the various characteristics of cock and hen before breeding. There are various types of highly egg productive layer breeds available throughout the world.

            Layer Breeds of fowl

According to the nature and color of egg, layer hens are of two types. Short description of these two types are listed below.
White Egg Laying Hens: This type of hens are comparatively smaller in size. Relatively eat less food, and the color of egg shell is white. Isa White, Lehman White, Nikchik, Bab Cock BV-300, Havard White, Hi Sex White, Sever White, Hi line White, Bovanch White etc. are some popular white egg laying chickens.
Brown Egg Laying Hens: Brown egg laying hens are relatively larger in size. They eat more foods, compared to white egg layers. Lay bigger eggs than other laying breeds. Egg shell is brown colored. There are many types of brown layer available. Among those Isa Brown, Hi Sex Brown, Sever 579, Lehman Brown, Hi Line Brown, Bab Cock BV-380, Gold Line, Bablona Tetro, Bablona Harko, Havard Brown etc. are very suitable for commercial
layer poultry farming .

Layer Hen Selection

You have to keep in mind some essential information before selecting the layer hens for your poultry farming business. You have to select those breeds which are suitable for your layer poultry farming business and can produce well in your area. Read below for selecting proper breeds for your business.
chicken, chicken picture, layer chicken, layer
For commercial eggs production, you have to chose highly productive laying hens correctly.
All type of hens do not produce equal number of eggs.
The chosen breeds must have to have good production capability.
If your chosen breed contain the desired characteristic and have a reputation for egg production, then that breed is suitable for your business.
Always purchase healthy chicks from a famous and popular hatchery. You can see their catalog before purchasing.

   Keeping Chicks

During the first weeks after birth, many chicks do not want to drink water due to transporting them from one place to another. So you have to make adequate water drinking systems in their brooder house, and you have to train them for drinking water. Mix 5% glucose with water, so that they can easily get energy. Provide them any types of high quality multivitamin by mixing with water (suggested by electrolyte production companies instruction). Multivitamin and electrolyte are very effective when you transport chick from a long distance. It reduces tiredness and lack of water, and help to make the chick normal.

   Vaccination and it’s Importance

Vaccination program is a must for chicks for keeping them free from all types of diseases. The main advantage of poultry vaccination are listed below.
Timely vaccination makes disease resistance power in the body of chick.
Help to keep the hen free from infective poultry diseases.
Disease prevalence will be less.
Mortality rate will reduce.
And low mortality rate = more production = more profit.
There are many types of poultry vaccines are available for layer hens. Marex, Ranikheth, Gamboro, Bruchaities, Bosonto, Salmonela etc. are used for layer chickens.

   Before Vaccination

You have to maintain some rules before vaccination.
Hold the chickens very carefully.
Vaccinate the chickens without any strain.
There is no need to vaccinate the ill hen.
Wash the vaccination equipment with hot boiled water or germicide medicine/antiseptic.
Do the vaccination program in cold weather condition.
Preventive vaccine is always applicable to healthy bird. Never vaccinate an infected bird.

   Keeping Growing Chicks

You have to maintain the suggestion listed below for keeping growing layer chickens.
chicken, chicken picture, layer chicken, layer
You have to provide the growing chicks special care until they reach 4-5 weeks of age.
After brooding serve them good quality pellet feed. It will make good results in the future. They will produce egg highly. High quality pellet will make the chickens healthy and increase their body weight.
So it is very important to provide them quality pellet feed during growing period.
Egg Production from Commercial Layer Farm
Egg production from a commercial layer farm depends on the care and farm management. If you take good care of your birds and manage them properly, then the production and profit will be high.
Withing the first 20 weeks of age, about 5% of hens start laying eggs.
About 10% birds start laying at their 21 weeks of age.
When they reach 26 to 30 weeks of age, they produce highly. Although, it may be different depending on their strain.
After laying a maximum number of eggs, they usually stop laying for a few days.
And after this period, their egg production might reduces slowly.
Egg laying rate and size of eggs increases gradually.
The hens grow till their 40 weeks of age.
Weight and size of eggs increases till their 50 weeks of age.

  Importance and method of Lip Cutting

Cutting the lip of laying hens is very important. The main benefits are listed below.
Lip cutting help to reduce mutual fights.
It help to prevent food waste.
You have to cut your chick’s lip at their age of 8 to 10 days.
Cut the lip of growing chicken at their 8 to 12 weeks of age.
Cut the lip of chicks 0.2 cm from their nose.
Cut 0.45 cm in case of growing chickens.
Cut the both upper and lower lips.
Don’t cut the both lip together. Cut one after another.
Use block chick trimming machine to cut the lips.
Don’t cut their lip two days after or before vaccination, after or before using some medicines like sulfur. Don’t cut the lip if the hen in a strain, and during adverse weather conditions and if the hen start laying eggs.
chicken, poultry, poultry farming, layer chicken
Serve the chicken water mixed with vitamin “K” three days before cutting lips. Wash the lip cutting instrument with antiseptic. Test the edge and temperature of blade. You have to be careful, and don’t damage their eyes and tongue. Choose cold weather for cutting their lips. Lip cutting process should be observed by an experienced technician. After cutting lips, serve them water in a deep pot. Provide them some extra energy enriched feed.

Feeding

There are many companies available throughout the world, which are producing commercial feed for layer chickens. You can buy feed from your local market or make the feed at your own house. You have to be sure that the feed you bought are enriched with essential food value. Protein and mineral are very important for laying hens.
Provide 2% of calcium for two weeks after their birth.
If you notice they are not gaining expected weight, then you have to serve starter feed for eight weeks.
Serve feed two or three times in a day till their 18 weeks of age.
Demand of feed increase very fast when the birds start laying.
Serve them layer poultry feed according to their age and weights.
Don’t decrease the amount of feed while laying (even if their weight increase).

  Water Management

Chickens health depend on the supply of pure, clean and fresh drinking water. You have to provide adequate water according to the demand of your laying hens. For purifying the water, mix 0.3 g bliching per litter. Determine a suitable place to keep the water pot inside the poultry house. Supply cold water during summer season and hot weather, and slightly hot water in cold weather or winter season.
In accordance with the age and species of chickens, food providing can control the weights of chicken. Use sufficient calcium, phosphorus, vitamins, amino acid and other mineral substance in their food. For purifying water use bliching powder or chlorine. If you follow the methods mentioned above, then you can make better profit from your layer poultry farming business.
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Rabbit farming in Nigeria


Have you ever considered rabbit farming as a top business opportunity?
Though rabbit meat may not be as common as chicken , beef or pork , there’s no doubt it’s a very lucrative business; every year, over one million tons of rabbit meat is consumed worldwide.
The world’s four biggest producers and consumers of rabbit meat are: China, Italy, Spain and France.
In Africa, the consumption of rabbit meat is gradually taking off and a few farmers on the continent are already enjoying the benefits of this niche business.
In this article, I’ll share the success stories of three farmers in Ghana and Kenya who have achieved remarkable success with their rabbit farms.
For those of you reading this who don’t know, rabbit meat contains the highest amounts of digestible proteins and the lowest cholesterol and fat of all types of meat. Rabbits are also easy to raise; they’re clean and require little capital, labour, time and space to manage.
This article will open your eyes to the amazing benefits of the rabbit business and offers some valuable and free resources you can use to get started. I had fun doing the research for this article. I hope you have fun reading it!
Three successful African Rabbit Farmers you need to know
Africa already boasts of a few rabbit farmers who started from nothing but have built remarkably successful rabbit farm businesses. Their success in spite of capital and skill challenges will inspire and encourage you to take action on your
business ideas.
Let’s meet them!
Farmer Brown (Ghana)
Adotei Brown (popularly known as ‘Farmer Brown’) quit his Civil Service job in 2002 to start his rabbit farm on a small scale with three does (female rabbits) and one buck (male).
With just about 10 Ghanaian Cedis (about $3), he reinvested all his profits into the business. Today, his farm grows nearly 3,000 rabbits every year and slaughters up to 500 every week for sale to grocery stores, restaurants and hotels. The average price for his rabbits is about 20 Ghana Cedis (about $6) and business is booming.
Farmer Brown has become a popular advocate for the consumption of rabbit meat in Ghana. He has a special eatery for rabbit meat on his farm, which attracts visitors, including tourists.
His eatery serves tasty rabbit meat in different forms: grilled, smoked and cooked. He also has a thriving grasscutter (bush meat) farming business that runs side-by-side with the rabbit farm.
Farmer Brown has dedicated himself to training more young people in Ghana to take up rabbit farming. To assure a steady market for the young generation of farmers he trains, he buys mature rabbits from them to ensure they have a steady cash flow from the business.
Moses Mutua, CEO Rabbit Republic (Kenya)
Popularly known as ‘Mr. Rabbit’ in Kenya, Moses Mutua grew up in a poor family and couldn’t further his education because his family couldn’t afford to pay for it.
Although he always wanted to become a policeman, he never reached that dream. Instead he got a job as a security guard and worked at it for five years before he got fired.
Before he became Mr. Rabbit, Moses had already tried greenhouse farming, fish farming , organic farming, but settled on rabbits because they are the most lucrative domesticated animals in the world in terms of time, space utilisation and profit margins.
Moses learned everything about rabbit farming from the internet (by using Google) and finally started a small rabbit farm with just six rabbits. That’s how his company, Rabbit Republic, was born. (photo credit: nafis.go.ke)
Today, Rabbit Republic has a turnover that’s more than Sh10 million (about $100,000) and slaughters about 2,000 rabbits every month.
His business has attracted investors and Moses is currently developing a five-acre farm that will breed about 30,000 rabbits. The video below shows Mr. Rabbit in action on his farm as he explains the profitability of the rabbit farming business and why more entrepreneurs should seriously consider it.
Rabbit Republic now has a network of over 1,000 rabbit farmers across Kenya who receive free training and support and in turn sell their mature rabbits to the company.
This expansion has paid off as Rabbit Republic has now opened shop in neighbouring countries; Uganda and Tanzania. But that’s not all. By mid-2015, the company plans to export one ton of rabbit sausages to the US and Europe where the demand for healthy meats (like rabbits) is growing.
Mr. Rabbit wants to make Kenya a major player in the untapped global rabbit meat market. Currently, China, Italy, Spain and France are the leading producers of rabbit meat which has earned a reputation as a ‘super meat’ due to its nutritional and health benefits.
Rabbit Republic is now partnering with universities and local/international organisations to train more youths and women on rabbit farming as a means to alleviate poverty.
Charles Kamau (Kenya)
Charles started a small rabbit farm in 2004 to provide organic fertilizer for his
vegetable farm . He lost his job in the hospitality industry and had to do something to feed his young family. His first attempt at raising rabbits was a disaster because he lost all his animals to diseases.
Despite his frustration, he did some basic research, learned from his mistakes and started again. This time, it was a huge success and he even had to demolish part of his house to create more space for his thriving rabbit business.
Charles holding up a Flemish Giant, one of the largest rabbit breeds in the world.
(Photo credit: Kenya Rabbit Network)
Charles Kamau stocks a wide range of rabbit breeds which he sells to new farmers and also slaughters rabbits which we supplies to local meat markets.
His top customers include foreign nationals living in Kenya, restaurants and five-star hotels. In fact, he once got an order from China to supply a consignment of 22,000 pieces of rabbit fur but was unable to meet that huge request. This just shows how big the demand for rabbit products is.
Charles says he is now able to save more than Sh20,000 (about $220) every month from his rabbit business. The business also provides money to feed his family and pay
school fees for his children who attend private schools.
A few years ago, he was able to buy some plots of land in Nairobi (Kenya’s capital city) and recently bought a car and a 12-acre property where he is planning to establish a much larger rabbit farm.
3 Reasons why you should seriously consider rabbit farming
The success stories of these rabbit farmers prove the huge and largely untapped potential of the rabbit farming business in Africa. In this section, I’ll reveal three major reasons why you should seriously consider the rabbit farming business opportunity. Here they are:
#1 There is a huge market opportunity for rabbits
The growing rate of heart disease and related ailments has increased awareness of the harmful effects of cholesterol in our diets.
More people are now going for ‘white’ meat which contains low amounts of cholesterol. Unlike ‘red meats’ (especially beef and pork), white meats like ostrich, poultry, fish and rabbit meat contain less fats and cholesterols and have higher health benefits. (photo credit: thesaucysoutherner.com)
Apart from fish, rabbit meat has the highest amount of protein and contains the lowest fat than all other types of meat. It contains less calories and Sodium than other meats but contains more calcium and phosphorus (which is very good).
As a result of these properties, rabbit meat has become the ‘super meat’ for people looking to eat healthy meats and live a healthier lifestyle. Rabbit meat is also very widely accepted. Unlike snails and pork , there are hardly any religious or cultural taboos about consuming rabbit meat.
More than 700 million rabbits are slaughtered worldwide every year, producing about 1 million metric tons of rabbit meat. The world’s leader in rabbit meat production is China, representing over 30% of total global production.
Rabbit meat is popular in countries such as Italy, Spain, France and China. These countries consume the most rabbit per person (about 8kg per person) and are the best export markets for rabbit meat.
Rabbits produce high quality skins that are used to make fur garments (like clothing, hats and boots), and to cover bicycle seats, etc. Another significant use of rabbits is in cosmetic, medical and pharmaceutical research laboratories. Rabbits are also purchased by people who want to keep them as pets.
#2 Rabbit farming is lucrative because rabbits multiply very fast
A single doe (female rabbit) can give birth to (litter) up to 40 kits (baby rabbits) in a single year. This means you can start with two mature breeding rabbits (one male, one female) and end up with over 40 rabbits in less than 12 months. That’s because rabbits can breed throughout the year and it takes just about a month (30-33 days) for a pregnant doe to produce baby rabbits.
Photo credit: pocketpause.com
After they are born, rabbits grow very fast and can reach maturity and market size in less than 6 months. One of the reasons for this fast growth rate is that rabbits are efficient converters of the food they eat.
Compared to other livestock animals (poultry, cattle, pigs etc), rabbits convert up to 20 percent of the proteins they eat into body weight. That’s higher than any other animal!
A mature rabbit ready for market can sell for up to $22 (depending on the location and customer). However, the cost of raising a rabbit comes to about $1 per month.
According to Moses Mutua (CEO of Rabbit Republic), the resources and cost incurred on raising one cow is equivalent to what you’d use to raise 40 rabbits. As a result, rabbits offer a higher profit potential than cattle and other livestock.
And because rabbits mature quickly and multiply very fast, they offer one of the best opportunities to quickly recover your costs and investment in a short period of time.
#3 Easy to start, cheap to operate and maintain
Rabbits don’t need any elaborate preparation or huge capital to start up. You can start with two rabbits (male and female) using a basic cage made of wood and chicken wire.
Unlike chickens, cattle and pigs, rabbits are not noisy animals. They are very clean animals and don’t easily get attacked by diseases.
Above all, rabbits don’t require a lot of space like other livestock; it’s the ideal animal to raise in your backyard or any place with little space. (photo credit: backyard-rabbits.com)
Raising rabbits is not labour-intensive like cattle and poultry. Rabbits are easy to feed and often don’t need a lot of attention. As a result, a rabbit farming business can be run on a part time basis.
Some kitchen waste, grass, plant leaves etc. are favorite foods of rabbits. In fact, a single rabbit needs just about 120 grams of food daily. You can feed it in the morning before you go to work and then in the evening when you return.
So, in terms of capital, time, space and labour needs, rabbit farming beats poultry, pig farming, and cattle farming.
Ready to start your own rabbit farm? Here are two important tips.
If you’re excited about everything you’ve read so far in this article and can’t wait to join the small but fast growing league of ‘rabbit entrepreneurs in Africa, here are two very important things you need to do to get started:
#1 Learn the nuts and bolts of rabbit farming
I don’t believe you must pay someone to teach you how to raise rabbits. People like Moses Mutua (Rabbit Republic) learned everything about rabbit farming on the internet.
There are lots of free manuals and videos online that will help you. I have done some homework for you and found two of the best manuals on the internet that you can use to learn everything you need to know about rabbit farming. Here they are:
Rabbits, A Producer’s Manual – This 61-page manual is the most comprehensive book on rabbit farming you will ever find. It contains everything you need to know about rabbits including breeding, slaughter and packaging. I strongly recommend it.
Raising Rabbits for Meat – This is another great resource for learning everything about rabbit farming. It’s written in very simple language which makes it easy to understand. It covers a lot of topics including how to build rabbit hutches and the common diseases that affect rabbits. You’ll surely enjoy reading it.
#2 Find good breeder stock to get started
Breeder stock are the first rabbits a new farmer starts her rabbit business with. Like I mentioned earlier, the minimum stock you need to get started is one male (buck) and one female rabbit (doe).
If you want, you can start with more does; one buck can service up to five does. Ask around for local farmers who can sell you a good breeder stock. Ask for evidence that proves the gender of the rabbits you buy so you don’t end up with all males or females.
Keep in mind that there are several breeds of rabbit. However, some breeds are better suited for commercial farming than others.
Commercial breeds grow into large sizes and produce faster. Show rabbit breeds, which are often smaller than commercial breeds, are popularly used as pets or raised for their fur and may not be suited for commercial meat production.
The best places to find rabbit farmers are your local livestock markets, Agriculture ministry or department or through local farmers’ associations.
When do you want to get started?
This article has shown you how three rabbit farmers in different parts of Africa achieved remarkable success in the rabbit farming business.
We also looked at three reasons why more African entrepreneurs should consider joining the rabbit farming business. And finally, we shared some valuable resources that would help you get started as soon as possible. (photo credit: nourishnetwork.com)
Have any questions or comments? I would love to hear from you in the comments section below.
If you think this article is interesting and valuable, please don’t keep it to yourself. Share it with your network of friends and colleagues using the Facebook , Twitter and
Google+ buttons below.
If you’d like to see more amazing and lucrative business ideas, check out our
Browse ideas page and I’m sure you’ll be blown away!
To your success!
And by the way, if you enjoyed reading this article and you’re thinking of raising capital to start or grow your business, you’ll love my amazing and life-changing FREE course.

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British Giant Rabbit Breed Information

The British Giant rabbit is a large breed of domestic rabbit derived from the Flemish Giant rabbit . It arose as a separate breed in the United Kingdom in the 1940s. British Giant rabbits were bred from the Flemish Giant stock of varying colors from the United States. In Britain, the breed standard of the Flemish Giant is only recognized in steel gray coloring and may be somewhat smaller than the original European Flemish Giants, a breed that originates in Belgium. Thus the British Giant rabbit was bred for a greater variety in coloring and although smaller than continental Flemish rabbits, retain broadly the same characteristics. The British Giant rabbit is not recognized by the American Rabbit Breeders Association, but it is recognized by the British Rabbit Council. The breed is virtually unknown outside the United Kingdom.
British Giant Rabbit Characteristics
The British Giant rabbit is pretty smaller than it’s ancestor, the Flemish Giants. But it is the largest breed of all British rabbits. The breed has a substantial build long body. They have broad straight back, rounded haunches and powerful legs. Their body is large and powerful. The fur of the British Giant rabbit is medium in length, dense and soft. And their fur comes in a variety of colors including Black, Blue, Grey, Opal, Sable and White. Their head is wide with full cheeks. And the ears of the British Giant rabbit are large and erect. As a large breed of rabbit, the British Giants can grow up to 7 kg. But their average body weight is about 5.4 to 5.9 kg. Photo from Wikipedia.
british giant rabbit, british giant rabbits, about
Uses
British Giant rabbit is mainly raised for meat production. But if they are handled early and regularly enough, then they will become very affectionate and good pets.
Special Notes
British Giant rabbits have the same calm, friendly temperament as the Flemish Giants. They are docile, gentle and amenable like some other large
rabbit breeds . But they are not very active compared to other breeds. They will be more than happy to lie around watching the world go by. They are perfect house rabbit and will live very happily with other animals and children. They have good temperament and rarely aggressive, which make them excellent as pets. They enjoy human interaction and love affection. But they will be happy by snoozing or stretching out and watching the action rather take part in it. The British Giant rabbit require regular grooming for keeping it’s fur in good condition and prevent it from becoming matted. Their average lifespan is about 4 to 6 years. However, review full breed profile of the British Giant rabbit in the following chart.

     British Giant Rabbit | Breed Profile

Breed Name                                    British Giant

Other Name                                      None

Breed Purpose                                 Mainly kept for meat, also good as pets.

Breed Size                                        Large

Weight                                              5.4 to 5.9 kg

Good as Pets                                   Yes

Climate Tolerance                          All Climates

Color Varieties                                Black, Blue, Brown Grey, Steel Grey, Opal, White

Rarity                                                Common

Country of Origin                            United Kingdom
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How to know the difference between male and female Duck

I will teach you some differences between male and female ducks . But the differences between male and female ducks will not be readily obvious, depending on he duck species. Although if you know what to listen and look for, then you will be better able to tell a male duck from female ducks.
Differences Between Male and Female Ducks
There are four principal ways for knowing or determining  a duck’s gender. And these ways are sound, behavior, external appearance and internal anatomy. However, here we are describing more about the differences between male and female ducks.
1. Physical Appearance
In many duck species, the male ducks have more colorful feathers and bills. And the females generally exhibit duller colors. For example, the male Mallard ducks have glossy green heads, bright yellow bills and bodies of brown, gray and black. Whereas the female Mallards have an orange and brown bill and a mottled-brown body color. The male Mallard ducks have white tail feathers and a black-tail-curl that females lack. The Northern Shoveler male ducks have a white chest with chestnut flank, but the females have a brownish speckled body. In many species, the male ducks will have very bright coloration in their plumage for attracting mates during the mating season. And the males will molt and lose their bright coloration after mating season, and resemble a female.


2. Observing the bill color: this is another way to tell the differences between male and female ducks. The bill color doesn’t change during the mating season in many duck species. In case of Mallard ducks , the bill color of the males is bright yellow and the females have a brown and orange bill. The Mottled male ducks have a bill that is a solid olive green to yellow color. And the female’s bill is brown to orange with dark spotches. The male Wood ducks have a red bill that has a patch of yellow at the bottom.
3. Curled Feather Near the Tail
The male ducks will generally have an upwardly curled feather near their tail. In males this feather will become noticeable in male ducks when they are aged between 2 and 4 months, and remains after molting. The females generally don’t have this feather.
how to differentiate male and female ducks,
4. Check the Vent i.e reproductive organs 
Ducks’ reproductive organs are inside their bodies. So, telling the males apart from the females takes a little more expertise if you’re attempting to make a distinction based on the plumbing. Although, it’s possible to roll a duck over and turn its vent outward so you can see the organs. Unless you’ve had experience doing this, checking a duck’s vent to determine gender is best left to the vet.
5. The Size
In most duck species, the males are generally larger than the females. The male Rouens , Welsh Harlequins and Mallard ducks have larger heads and thicker necks than the females, but their body is larger.
6. Sound
The female ducks generally have a hard and loud quack than the males. And the males generally have rough and soft quack.
7.Seasonal Changes
The male and female ducks look alike in some duck breeds during certain seasons, for example during breeding season. Freckled duck is one such breed. The males and the females have identical feathers, but the male sports a red color on his bill during breeding.
8. Differences in behavior 
There are some behavioral differences between male and female ducks. The male ducks generally have a wide variety of species-and gender-specific behaviors that differ from those of their female counterparts. For example, male Mallard ducks court females by bobbing their heads from one side to the other (glancing over their shoulders or flapping their wings as they raise up above the water). The Mallard will make threatening moves with an open bill and an acrobatic chase, when confronted by another male. The male Bufflehead ducks attract females by flying overhead and then skidding to a halt on the water, raising their crests and bobbing their heads.
In most duck breeds, the differences between male and female ducks are easily identified. You can easily identify males and females if you raise
ducks for sometimes.
The male ducks are generally more colorful than the female ducks.
In case of size, the males are generally larger than the females.
The males of most species have a prominent curled feather near the tail, which is not present in the tail of females.
Male ducks have softer and and harsher quack, while the females have distinctive loud quack.
The males have an extended or elongated genital organ whereas females have a cone-like genital organ.
The female ducks are known as hens or simply ducks, while the male ducks are known as drakes.
These are the common differences between male and female ducks. You will be able to differentiate males and females easily if you raise them for sometime.
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How to know and check a pregnant cow

Read carefully to know how to tell if a cow or heifer is pregnant.
    Actually, determining pregnancy in cattle is very very important especially for breeders and it has many benefits. And determining pregnancy in cattle is highly recommended for the cattle farmer for maximizing cattle breeding efficiency. Pregnancy diagnosis by rectal palpation has been performed for decades in cattle. But this system involves an experienced person introducing his hand and arm into the rectum of the heifer or cow and feeling the fetus physically. A skillful palpator can diagnose pregnancy as early as around 40 days of gestation and later. Due to the variation in size of individual fetuses can make it pretty difficult as the fetus gets larger (but it is usually possible to determine the gestation length).
Determining Pregnancy in Cattle
Generally a cow or heifer is assumed to be pregnant if it’s estrus signs are not observed around 3 weeks after artificial insemination or service through a bull. Although not all the cows or heifers will be pregnant even if estrus detection is good. On the other hand, during pregnancy some pregnant cows or heifers (around 7 percent) can show some signs of estrus. Artificial insemination of these animals may result in embryonic or foetal death. However, currently the most reliable methods of determining pregnancy in cattle are ; hormone measurements, rectal palpation, early pregnancy-associated protein and ultrasound examination. Here we are describing more about the easiest ways of determining pregnancy in cattle.
Rectal Palpation
Rectal palpation is the most easiest and old method for determining pregnancy in cattle. The main advantages of this method is immediate result which ensures early treatment of non-pregnant cows or heifers. Although accuracy in this method depends on the experience of the practitioner and the accuracy rate can reach around 95 percent. Rectal palpation method is generally done between 35 and 65 days after artificial insemination. You can call an expert in your area for determining pregnancy in cattle through this method.
how to determine pregnancy in cow or heifer,
Early Pregnancy-associated Protein
The most recent available test for determining pregnancy in cattle is called ECF (early conception factor), or pregnancy-associated glycoprotein in blood samples. This also an easy way, and the method can detect the pregnancy-associated glycoprotein within 2 days (or 48 hours) of conception. By the way, this test should be treated solely as an conception indication because of the high incidence of embryonic mortality. And pregnancy can be confirmed later by rectal or ultrasound examination.
Ultrasound Examination
This is also a very effective way for determining pregnancy in cattle. Real time ultrasound is a relatively simple and reliable system for determining pregnancy in cattle as early as day 26. And generally accuracy in this method is very high (sometimes with over 99 percent).
Behaviour & Physical Changes
You can also detect pregnancy of your cows or heifers by yourself. You can observe the behavior of you cows and heifers, and it is one of the best non-invasive means of determining pregnancy in cattle. On an average, the estrous cycle in cattle occurs every 21 days. If a heifer or cow has absorbed or aborted the embryo, she will soon come into estrus and continue regular cycling until she conceives again.
The bulls generally don’t show interest to any cows that maintain pregnancy. They generally show interest if a cow or heifer that comes into heat. So, observing the behavior of your bulls (if there are any) is also a great way for determining pregnancy in cattle.
Paying attention to the physical changes of your heifers and cows is also a way for determining pregnancy in cattle. Common physical changes in a pregnant cow or heifer includes changes to size, changes to body shape, and abdomen and udder changes. The udder begins to fill out more and reach maturity in heifers (virgin heifers that are not yet conceived will have and under-developed udder that is only resembled by the presence of four small teats tucked up under their belly between their hind legs).
These are the common ways of determining pregnancy in cattle. If you are a beginner, then please contact an experienced person for learning more. Comment
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How to milk a cow with hand

       
 Using hand to milk a cow  is not as easy as it may look. The milking process requires lots of work and time to learn properly. If you don’t know how to milk a cow by hand, then the milking process is going to be more difficult to you. If you raise at least a few cows for family use, then you must have to know about milking a cow by hand. Actually, you will need to milk your cow everyday to fully reap the benefits of a dairy cow . Because the cows may stop producing milk or develop problems with their teats, if they are not milked on a regular basis. Learning more about how to milk a cow by hand and milking your cow/cows on a regular schedule can prevent such problems from occurring.
How to Milk a Cow by Hand
Fist of all secure the cow’s head before you begin milking, so that the cow can’t wander off. Then clean her udder and after that sit on a sturdy stool and lubricate each teats before you begin milking. Then pull downward from the base of the teat, and squeeze the milk out into a bucket. However, here we are describing more about the process of milking a cow by hand.
Securing the Cow
First of all you will need to secure the cow. To do so, you can tie the cow to a stable fixture. You should tie the cow in a low-stress and quiet environment. You should approach the cow slowly, because your cow can get afraid or be nervous if you move fast. And the milking process will be more difficult and unpleasant for both of you and your cow if the cow is anxious or afraid.
If you have a stanchion in your farm, then you can effectively secure your cow by using that.
Cleaning the Udder and Teats
You need to clean the udder and teats of your cow with soapy water or iodine before start milking. You need to wash the teats for preventing soil, and also any bacteria that it may contain, from contaminating the milk. If possible, try using slightly warm water. Because washing with slightly warm water may help coax or bring down the milk.
Another important thing is ‘don’t milk your cow if her teats are still wet’. Because the soap and water may drip down into the milk bucket and contaminate the milk. You can dry the teats by using a clean and soft cotton cloth.

Follow the step by step guide below for milking a cow by hand.
Wash Your Hands
Your hands can carry bacteria, and such bacteria can be harmful if transmitted to the cow. So, you need to wash your hands by soap or handwash (you can also use a pair of latex gloves for milking). After washing your hands, apply a lubricant to your hands for minimizing friction. You can use petroleum jelly or any edible oil as a lubricator. There are some people who prefer to use udder cream for lubricating.
Strip the Teats
Strip each teat for several times. Actually stripping is the process of pulling down a cow’s teat in order to pass any dirt, bacteria or other derbis from the milk ducts. And don’t catch the milk from stripping in the milk bucket.
Use a Bucket
Place a bucket underneath the udder of your cow (this bucket will catch the milk that you squeeze from the udder). Holding the bucket between your legs will be better. It requires practice, time and patience, but it will be easy and comfortable for you after sometime. You can also tick your cow by giving her grain or hay during milking. Doing so will ensure the cow stands still in most cases.
Sit Comfortably
You should seat yourself in a position that will allow you to move away quickly if the cow becomes uncooperative. It’s good to sit or squat on the right side of the cow. Your body should be very close to the cow (especially underneath the cow), so that there is as little distance as possible between the bucket and udder.
Begin Milking
Wrap your one hand around 2 of the 4 teats. You can choose front two teats first, and then the back pair. Or you can also try diagonal teats, for example front left and rear right. Then begin milking by gently clamping each teat between your extend thumb and first finger, so that the teat fills your palm as you squeeze down. For increasing milk yield, you may need to gently bump against the udder. Doing so will help to stimulate the udder to let down milk as a calf would.
As you press down on the teat, maintain your grip on the base of the teat so that the milk doesn’t flow back up into the udder. Be gentle yet firm while milking your cow by hand.
You should milk your cow until the quarter that you are milking looks deflated. Generally an emptied quarter of the udder will look saggy and wrinkled, and feel much softer and more malleable. While a full udder will appear tight and be firm to the touch. Actually this requires practice, and an experienced farmer can fell the udder to know exactly when all the milk has come down. Repeat the motion with your other hand on the adjacent quarter after you have milked 1 quarter.
Then move on to milk the other 2 teats. You can change your position and move to other side of the cow if you began milking the two teats on a side. But changing side is not necessary if you use the diagonal milking method.
Hope you have already learned a lot about how to milk a cow by hand. Milking a cow properly actually requires lots of time and practice. The more you milk your cows the better you will be able to milk them.
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Terms Used in poultry

    Here are the terms used in Poultry

Cock                      — male fowl above one year of age.

Cockerel               — male fowl below one year of age

Hen                       — female fowl above one year of age.

Pullet                    — female fowl below one year of age.

Chick                     — A young fowl (0-6 weeks old).

Capon                     — A castrated male fowl.

Caponization.        — Process of castration in fowl.

Treading                — Act of mating in fowl.

Grower                    — fowl between 7–19 weeks of age.

Layer                       — female fowl over 20 weeks of age that can lay eggs.

Broiler                      — fowl reared for meat

Clutch                      — A group of young chicks.

Flock                       — A group of fowls.

Chicken                   — meat of fowl.
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Breads of domestic fowl

The various species of fowls may have had a common ancestor, the primitive fowl called GALLUS. The various breads of fowls can be classified into three main groups
  1. Egg producers which includes: white Leghorn, and brown Leghorn.

  2. Meet producers known as broilers e.g Sussex, Cornish,and Cochin.

  3. Dual purpose ones (i.e both meat and egg producers) e.g., Rhode, Island red, Plymouth Rock, and New Hampshire.

   
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How to check the fertility of an Egg

1.   First Hold the egg above the light. Take your candling equipment in a dark room within close proximity to the incubator. Take an egg from the incubator and hold it above the light. The correct way to do this is allows:
Place the larger end of the egg (where the air sac is) directly against the light. Hold the egg near the top, between your thumb and forefinger. Tilt the egg slightly to one side and rotate until you get the best view.
As you work, you should mark each egg with a number and take notes on your findings. That way, you can compare the results of your first candling with the results of your second candling.
Try to work quickly, but not so fast that you risk dropping the egg. As long as the eggs are returned to the incubator within twenty minutes to half an hour, there is no risk of the candling process affecting their development. A mother hen will frequently leave her eggs for short periods of time while she is incubating them.
Be aware that it will be more difficult to candle brown or speckled eggs as the dark shells do not become as transparent under the light.
Look for signs that the egg is a winner. A winner is an egg with a successfully developing embryo. You can tell if an egg is a winner using the following signs:
There will be a visible network of blood vessels spreading from the center of the egg outwards.
With a weaker candler, you might just be able to make out the clear bottom half of the egg (where the air sac is) and the darker top half of the egg (where the embryo is developing).
With a good candler, you might be able to see the dark outline of the embryo at the center of the network of blood vessels. You are most likely to see the embryo's eyes, which are the darkest spots inside the egg.
If you're lucky, you might see the embryo moving! [3]
Look for signs that the egg is a quitter. A quitter is an embryo which has stopped developing at some point during incubation, for one reason or another. Some quit due to poorly maintained temperatures or humidity, some are contaminated by bacteria, while others simply have bad genes.
The main indication that an egg is a quitter is the development of a blood ring. A blood ring looks like a well-defined red circle, which is visible on the inside of the shell. It forms when the embryo dies and the blood vessels supporting it pull away from the center and rest against the shell. [1]
Other indications that an egg is a quitter include the development of blood spots or blood streaks inside the egg. However, these dark patches can be difficulty to distinguish from a healthy embryo at this early stage.
If you are 100% certain that the egg is a quitter (the appearance of a blood ring is a very definite sign) then you should discard the egg immediately to prevent it from turning bad and exploding inside the incubator.
Look for signs that the egg is a yolker. A yolker is an egg that was never fertilized and has no chance of developing an embryo. You can tell if an egg is a yolker using the following signs:
The egg looks the exact same as it did when you first candled the eggs before putting them in the incubator.
The inside of the egg looks fairly clear, with no visible dark spots, blood vessels or blood rings. [5]
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How to Start Lucrative Poultry Farming in Nigeria


Medium scale poultry farm in Nigeria
A new poultry farm populated with day-old-chi
Poultry Farming in Nigeria is probably one of the most lucrative farming business you can do in Nigeria especially when it is setup and managed properly. The farmers we currently have are not producing enough poultry and will not be enough even in the next ten years! This aspect of livestock farming presents one of the finest opportunity for entrepreneurs to make good money within the shortest period of time possible. This is made possible due to the quick maturity of chickens.
With over 160 Million consumers in the country who buys poultry products on daily basis, the market is always here waiting to be tapped. The demand for eggs is so high that people go about everyday looking for where to buy eggs for supply .
So, how exactly can anyone who wish to start poultry farming in Nigeria be able to go about it and come out very profitable? This article will cover a lot of ground, and it is written based on personal experience and continually updated to make sure the information here is as accurate as possible at all time.
SEE ALSO: How to start small scale poultry farm
This very post will take more critical look at the business and how entrepreneurs who are interested in this business in Nigeria could start easily without wasting much time and resources.
Anyone can engage in poultry farming business, it doesn’t matter your educational or financial background. You can start at any level and grow as big as you want with time. The most important thing is that you are interested in starting somewhere.
This articles will focus on how to start small and grow big which I think will interest anyone with limited financial capacity who wants to start small
without involving much risks .
One of the factors that makes poultry farming business ideal is because chickens grows very fast. Unlike goats that takes 2 to 3 years to mature, a chicken can be ready for the market within 28 weeks from birth. That is why it is considered ideal business for loan takers who may actually invest the loan and within 30 to 40 weeks, they may start paying back through the money realized from sells. That is if everything goes well as planned.
SEE ALSO: Feasibility study on poultry Business in Nigeria
Profit Potential in Poultry Farming Business
1. Chicken Reproduce Fast
Average healthy Layer lays egg almost everyday or at least 4 times in a week. Some Breeds can lay as much as 325 eggs in a year and take 21 days to hatch. This means that technically a Layer is capable of producing another chicken twice in three days.
So, if you have 500 healthy layers of good breeds (such as California white) they are capable of reproducing a whooping 12,000 chicks within 40 days!
2. Chicken Grows Very Fast
Within 21 days, the egg is hatched and within 28 weeks, they are ready for the market. That means a farmer may start making his money in just 34 weeks after successfully setting up his farm and whatever returns he make could be doubled in a year based on this calculation.
3. Chicken Sells at Very Good Price
A fully grown healthy chicken sells between 2,000 to 2,500 naira in Nigeria. Therefore, if you produce 12,000 chickens in your farm, you will be making N24 million by the time they are completely sold.
4. Egg market in Large too – Apart from the chicken, the egg is another money of it’s own. A crate of eggs sells for N500 – N550 for smaller eggs and N600 – N650 for bigger ones. Each crate contains 30 eggs. Therefore, if you have 500 layers that produces 12,000 pullet in a month and decides to sell all, you will be making
N200,000 to N260,000 monthly.
As you can see, the profit in poultry farming in Nigeria is mouth watering and the turn over time is fantastic. The big question now is how to get this business started?
SEE ALSO: PDF eBook on Poultry Business in Nigeria
What Your Poultry Business Plan Should Look Like
Draw out your effective business plan . Poultry business plan is like a road map leading you to where you are going in you business. It will help you know where you are at any point in time. Hence your business plan should include:
1. Decide on Type of Poultry Bird
Here you choose Chickens ( Layers and Broilers).
We choose chicken because that’s what this article focuses on. There are other types of birds that are good for livestock business too, such as
Goose , Duck , Turkey , etc.
2. Write Down your Area of Interest
You can’t just be in all aspect of poultry farming in Nigeria. You have to choose your area of interest where you would like to concentrate your business. This will ensure high level of focus and professionalism. If you can do two area, no problem. Below are some of the major Niches in Poultry Farming in Nigeria or elsewhere.
Layers Breeding which is egg production by
Layers
Broilers breeding which referrers to the chicken meat production by Broilers
Hatchery which has to do with breeding chicken for the purpose of Hatching new chicks
Poultry feed which is producing feeds for other poultry farmers
You may choose to Breed Layers and Broilers at a time or one of them. Hatchery is better done independently just like feed production. So, you choose your area of focus
3. Sort out Location
This has a direct effect to your startup cost. A location in a very remote rural area will cost far less than the one close to the urban area. Remote rural area with good road is the ideal location as you will be free from regulatory agencies and drive down the cost of labor too.
As a person new to Livestock business, you don’t want to invest all your capital into buying lands in urban area which may turn out not being used. Government policy is against setting up poultry farm near residential/urban areas for health implications.
4. Secure you Poultry Farm Starting Capital
With location in mind, you now have clearer idea of the capital required of you. Write down your detailed capital and investment requirements for your poultry farming in Nigeria venture and set out to source for it.
Like every other farming projects, the bigger you plan to start, the more investment required. You need to decide on the level of capital investment you are willing to commit into this business before starting.
SEE ALSO: How to build low cost poultry pen for Local Farmers
(a) Small scale Chicken Rearing (of about 50 birds) kept in cages at the backyard of your resident will take about N70,000 to start.
(b) A medium scale poultry farming that requires land and housing and other materials in 1 – 2 plots of Land takes about N500,000 to N5 Million to start.
(c) Large scale or Intensive poultry farming that requires high level of sophistication and more careful planning and professionalism, using advance Livestock farming techniques takes from
N10 Million.
Setting Up Your Poultry Farming In Nigeria
With your business plan is in place, the next is to proceed to setting up your farm without delay! At this point, it is my believe that you already have the money in your hands. So here are the things you need to acquire and put in place.
1. Buy Poultry Farm land
Like we said earlier, look for land in a remote location but make sure it’s not too far from the city. A place like Ijebu Ode , Remo Area , Imota in
Ikorodu. These places are perfect if you are in Lagos. Other places like towards Oshogbo after Ibadan isn’t too far too from the major city like Ibadan.
You can get Acre of land there for cheap price, cost of lands in most cases is determined by the sellers. But we may suggest price during commenting. So drop your comments below and let’s get the discussion going.
SEE ALSO: How to start a poultry farm on demand
2. Build your Poultry Pen Structure
House is very important for chicken rearing and effective keeping and management. Poultry housing are classified according to the scale and the management system. The most common types of poultry housing used for poultry farming in Nigeria are:
• Deep litter-
• Half litter and half slats –
• Battery –
• Semi-fold –
3. Buy Day Old Chick
Look for good Hatchery where you can get healthy day old chicks to start with. It costs from N140 to N200 sometimes up to N300.
4. Items you Need for Poultry Farm
Feeders, Drinkers, Perches. Nests, Crates, Lighting system, Waste disposal system, Incubator, Heaters or brooders, Egg tray, Cages and coops.
What’s Next…
You need addition resources to make your poultry business a successful one.
Join other poultry farmers who have made our
Poultry Business eBook their companion towards starting their poultry farms and managing it effectively.
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                              It goes without question that Guinea fowl are one of the most unusual, quirky and wacky birds around and thei...

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